Essential factors that influence a child’s development
Many factors influence the child’s development. These are physical, intellectual, spiritual, economic, and social. Family structure, child-rearing methodology, and child care services are three critical factors considered in child development.
Factors that influence child’s development
1)The family structure
The type of family has a significant influence on a child’s development. Two major types of families are nuclear and extended.
This family comprises parents who live with their children without any grandparents or other relatives cohabitation. The parents are responsible for education, health care, discipline, etc. This type is most suitable for child adoption as they have no interference from relatives. They can grow up in a healthy atmosphere with complete freedom to express themselves. But they lack the love and care of the child’s grandparents and cousins. But they possess good understanding and relationships among themselves. This is the nuclear family’s influence on a child’s development.
The family comprises blood relatives of the child. This type is found in Asia, Africa, Latin America, etc. The child gets all their love, affection, attention here. He has more opportunities to learn moral values like sharing etc. He does not lack the company of other children. They are financially stable, which means a child can get higher education quickly if he qualifies for it. But this type is not suitable for child adoption as a child cannot be given full freedom or privacy even within family members.
2) Age factor
There are different stages of a child’s development (infant, toddler, adolescent ) in a child’s life. A child is in the initial stage of development; the child needs more care and love than his elder child, who has already learned many things. He plays with the child easily gets irritated when a child cries or breaks something. He is less productive since he does not want to leave a child alone at home.
3) Physical factor
In the initial stage, a child’s development is purely dependent on the child’s physical environment, the number of child caregivers, food, etc.; when the child becomes an elder child’s physical environment has less influence on the child’s development. But it cannot be denied that a child’s physical needs are fulfilled at this age also. If a child does not get his share in the property after the father/elder child’s death, the child can adopt illegal means to fulfil his physical need, adversely affecting his life and health.
4) Social Factor
At present social factors have a significant impact on a child’s development. Many children follow different cultures by watching movies TV serials, coming in contact with different child-caregivers, etc. Some children are influenced by child labour due to social pressure. These children follow child labour at an early age which affects a child’s development.
5) Psychological Factor
Psychological factors have a more significant influence on a child’s development, a child has a great hidden desire to know about his future. If he knows that God has kept some work for him in the future, the child believes in himself and tries to learn different things, which helps him develop psychologically. This has a positive impact on a child’s personality development.
6) Economic Factor
Economic factors play a significant role in the child’s development and growth process. A well-to-do family provides quality education, nutritious food, proper clothing, comfortable shelter, healthy surroundings, good medical facilities, etc. a child who has all access to these facilities generally develops better compared to a child from a poor background.
7) Cultural factor
Cultural factors also influence a child’s personality development positively; family culture, social culture, and child’s learning from the different environments significantly impact his personality.
8) Geographical Factor
Geographical factors also play a positive role in a child’s development process. A child gets exposure to different cultures, languages, people, geographical features, etc., by living in other geographical regions. The child learns how to survive under difficult conditions, this gives a strong base for his future achievements.
9) Social factor
Social factors like a child’s family, child’s friends, and child’s peer group greatly impact a child’s personality. For example, a child who belongs to a sports club or educational club can cope with a difficult situation in future life.
10) Religious factor
Sometimes religion also influences child growth and behaviour patterns. The child gets strong belief from a religious sect; this gives a base for his high moral values and confidence. Moral solid values lead them to success in future life.
There are so many factors that influence a child’s development, and they have a significant impact. There is a saying that a child is a package of various possibilities. A child gets an upbringing from their environment and becomes what they will get from their environment. Child behaviour is a product of multiple factors: a child’s reactions depend upon the child’s education from their environment. These factors greatly affect a child’s growth and child’s personality development.
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