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CBSE Class 12 Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus

Class 12 Economics covers a wide range of topics and advanced information on the subject, including all of the questions from the CBSE Economics Syllabus. Economics is concerned with how governments, businesses, households, society, and people decide when, where, and how to best utilise their natural resources. It's a research project that examines a variety of abstract and ideal blueprints in order to predict how institutions would respond to changes in fiscal policies and market conditions, among other things.

CLASS XII - TERM-WISE CURRICULUM

TERM 1 - MCQ BASED QUESTION PAPER

Theory: 40 Marks    Time: 90 minutes

Marks

Periods

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics



  • Money and Banking

6

8

  • Government Budget and the Economy

6

15

  • Balance of Payments

6

7

Sub Total

18

30

Part B: Indian Economic Development



  • Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991:

    • Indian Economy on the eve of Independence

    • Indian Economy (1950-90)

    • Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation : An Appraisal

12

28

  • Current challenges facing Indian Economy

    • Poverty

    • Human Capital Formation

    • Rural development

  • 10

    17

    Sub Total

    22

    45

    Total

    40

    75

    Project Work (Part 1): 10 Marks



    Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

    Unit 2: Money and Banking

    Money – meaning and supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
    Money creation by the commercial banking system.
    Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank.

    Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy

    Government budget – meaning, objectives and components.
    Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
    Measures of government deficit – revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.

    Unit 5: Balance of Payments

    Balance of payments account – meaning and components; balance of payments deficit meaning.
    Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.

    Part B: Indian Economic Development

    Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

    A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence.
    Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.

    Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.

    Economic Reforms since 1991:
    Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST

    Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

    Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment.
    Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development.
    Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification.

    TERM 2 - SUBJECTIVE QUESTION PAPER

    Theory: 40 Marks    Time: 2 Hours

    Marks

    Periods

    Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics



    • National Income and Related Aggregates

    10

    23

    • Determination of Income and Employment

    12

    22

    Sub Total

    22

    45

    Part B: Indian Economic Development



    • Current challenges facing Indian Economy

      • Employment

      • Infrastructure

      • Sustainable Economic Development

    12

    18

    • Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours-b>

      • Comparative Development Experience of India and its Neighbours

    06

    12

    Sub Total

    18

    30

    Total

    40

    75

    Project Work: 10 Marks



    Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

    Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates

    What is Macroeconomics?
    Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
    Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income –
    Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
    Aggregates related to National Income:
    Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP.
    GDP and Welfare

    Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment

    Aggregate demand and its components.
    Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
    Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
    Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
    Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

    Part B: Indian Economic Development

    Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

    Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
    Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Health: Problems and Policies – A critical assessment.
    Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

    Unit 8: Development Experience of India

    A comparison with neighbours
    India and Pakistan
    India and China
    Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human
    Development Indicators

    Part C: Project in Economics

    Prescribed Books:
    1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
    2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
    3. Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
    4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
    5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE

    Guidelines for Project Work in Economics (Class XII)
    The objectives of the project work are to enable learners to:

    • probe deeper into theoretical concepts learnt in classes XI and XII

    • analyse and evaluate real world economic scenarios using theoretical constructs and arguments

    • demonstrate the learning of economic theory

    • follow up aspects of economics in which learners have interest

    • develop the communication skills to argue logically

    Role of the teacher: 
    The teacher plays a critical role in developing thinking skills of the learners. A teacher should:

    • help each learner select the topic based on recently published extracts from the news media, government policies, RBI bulletin, NITI Aayog reports, IMF/World Bank reports etc., after detailed discussions and deliberations of the topic

    • play the role of a facilitator and supervisor to monitor the project work of the learner through periodic discussions

    • guide the research work in terms of sources for the relevant data

    • educate learner about plagiarism and the importance of quoting the source of the information to ensure authenticity of research work

    • prepare the learner for the presentation of the project work

    • arrange a presentation of the project file

     

    Expected Checklist:

    • Introduction of topic/title

    • Identifying the causes, consequences and/or remedies

    • Various stakeholders and effect on each of them

    • Advantages and disadvantages of situations or issues identified

    • Short-term and long-term implications of economic strategies suggested in the course of research

    • Validity, reliability, appropriateness and relevance of data used for research work and for presentation in the project file

    • Presentation and writing that is succinct and coherent in project file

    • Citation of the materials referred to, in the file in footnotes, resources section, bibliography etc.

    Term-Wise Assessment of Project Work:

    • Project Work has broadly the following phases: Synopsis/ Initiation, Data Collection, Data Analysis and Interpretation, Conclusion.

    • The aspects of the project work to be covered by students can be assessed during the two terms.

    • 20 marks assigned for Project Work can be divided in to two terms.

    Mode of presentation/submission of the Project:

    At the end of the stipulated term, each learner will present the research work in the Project File to the External and Internal examiner. The questions should be asked from the Research Work/ Project File of the learner. The Internal Examiner should ensure that the study submitted by the learner is his/her own original work. In case of any doubt, authenticity should be checked and verified.

    CBSE Class 12 Economics Term – I Project Work (Part 1): 10 Marks

    The teacher will assess the progress of the project work in the term I in the following manner:

    Month

    Periodic    Work

    Assessment Rubrics

    Marks

    1-3


    July- September

    Instructions about Project Guidelines, Background reading Discussions on Theme and Selection of the Final Topic, Initiation/ Synopsis

    Introduction, Statement of Purpose/Need and Objective of the Study, Hypothesis/Research Question, Review of Literature, Presentation of Evidence, Key Words, Methodology,

    Questionnaire, Data Collection.

    5

    4-5


    October- November

    Planning and organisation: forming an action plan, feasibility or baseline study, Updating/modifying the action plan, Data Collection

    Significance and relevance of the topic; challenges encountered while conducting the research.

    5

    October- November

    Mid-term Assessment by internal examiner


    10

    TERM- II - PROJECT WORK (Part 2): 10 Marks

    The teacher will assess the progress of the project work in the term II in the following manner:

    Month

    Periodic    Work

    Assessment Rubrics

    Marks

    6-7


    December- January

    Content/data analysis and interpretation.


    Conclusion, Limitations, Suggestions, Bibliography, Annexures and Overall Presentation of the

    project.

    Content analysis and its relevance in the current scenario.


    Conclusion, Limitations, Bibliography, Annexures and Overall Presentation.



    5

    8

    January/ February

    Final Assessment and VIVA by both Internal and External Examiners

    External/ Internal Viva based on the project

    5



    TOTAL

    10

    Suggestive List of Projects for Class 12

    • Micro and Small Scale Industries

    • Food Supply Channel in India

    • Contemporary Employment situation in India

    • Disinvestment policy of the government

    • Goods and Services Tax Act and its Impact on GDP

    • Health Expenditure (of any state)

    • Human Development Index

    • Inclusive Growth Strategy

    • Self-help group

    • Trends in Credit availability in India

    • Monetary policy committee and its functions

    • Role of RBI in Control of Credit

    • Government Budget & its Components

    • Trends in budgetary condition of India

    • Exchange Rate determination – Methods and Techniques

    • Currency War – reasons and repercussions

    • Livestock – Backbone of Rural India

    • Alternate fuel – types and importance

    • Sarwa Siksha Abhiyan – Cost Ratio Benefits

    • Golden Quadrilateral- Cost ratio benefit

    • Minimum Support Prices x Relation between Stock Price Index and Economic Health of Nation

    • Waste Management in India – Need of the hour

    • Minimum Wage Rate – approach and Application

    • Digital India- Step towards the future

    • Rain Water Harvesting – a solution to water crises

    • Vertical Farming – an alternate way

    • Silk Route- Revival of the past

    • Make in India – The way ahead

    • Bumper Production- Boon or Bane for the farmer

    • Rise of Concrete Jungle- Trend Analysis

    • Organic Farming – Back to the Nature

    • Any other newspaper article and its evaluation on basis of economic principles

    • Any other topic