Mathematics transcends from basic skill to an in-depth analysis of the quantities around the students by this stage. The syllabus focuses on various new concepts and delving deeper into the pre-existing concepts. The students have gradually developed a better sense of the subject by the end of the year.
The curriculum for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the guidelines given by CBSE. The syllabus is based around the main book suggested by CBSE. The layout of the book changes drastically too, focusing more on learning.
Mathematics - textbook for class VI
The Chapters / Contents of the book
|Chapter 1: Knowing Our Numbers||1.1 Introduction 1.2 Comparing Numbers 1.3 Large Numbers in Practice 1.4 Using Brackets 1.5 Roman Numerals|
|Chapter 2: Whole Numbers||2.1 Introduction 2.2 Whole Numbers 2.3 The Number Line 2.4 Properties Of Whole Numbers 2.5 Patterns in Whole Numbers|
|Chapter 3: Playing With Numbers||3.1 Introduction 3.2 Factors and Multiples 3.3 Prime and Composite Numbers 3.4 Test For Divisibility Of Numbers 3.5 Common Factors and Common Multiples 3.6 Some More Divisibility Rules 3.7 Prime Factorisation 3.8 Highest Common Factor 3.9 Lowest Common Multiple 3.10 Some Problems on HCF and LCM|
|Chapter 4: Basic Geometrical Ideas||4.1 Introduction 4.2 Points 4.3 A Line Segment 4.4 A line 4.5 Intersecting Lines 4.6 Parallel Lines 4.7 Ray 4.8 Curves 4.9 Polygons 4.10 Angles 4.11 Triangles 4.12 Quadrilaterals 4.13 Circles|
|Chapter 5: Understanding Elementary Shapes||5.1 Introduction 5.2 Measuring Line Segments 5.3 Angles-’Right’ and ‘Straight’ 5.4 Angles- ‘Acute’, ‘Obtuse’ and ‘Reflex’ 5.5 Measuring Angles 5.6 Perpendicular Lines 5.7 Classification of Triangles 5.8 Quadrilaterals 5.9 Polygons 5.10 Three Dimensional Shapes|
|Chapter 6: Integers||6.1 Introduction 6.2 Integers 6.3 Addition of Integers 6.4 Subtraction of Integers with the help of a Number Line|
|Chapter 7: Fractions||7.1 Introduction 7.2 A Fraction 7.3 Fraction on the Number Line 7.4 Proper Fractions 7.5 Improper and Mixed Fractions 7.6 Equivalent Fractions 7.7 Simplest Form of a Fraction 7.8 Like Fractions 7.9 Comparing Fractions 7.10 Addition and Subtraction of Fractions|
|Chapter 8: Decimals||8.1 Introduction 8.2 Tenths 8.3 Hundredths 8.4 Comparing Decimals 8.5 Using Decimals 8.6 Addition of Numbers with Decimals 8.7 Subtraction of Decimals|
|Chapter 9: Data Handling||9.1 Introduction 9.2 Recording Data 9.3 Organisation of Data 9.4 Pictograph 9.5 Interpretation of a Pictograph 9.6 Drawing a Pictograph 9.7 A Bar Graph|
|Chapter 10: Mensuration||10.1 Introduction 10.2 Perimeter 10.3 Area|
|Chapter 11: Algebra||11.1 Introduction 11.2 Matchstick Patterns 11.3 The Idea Of A Variable 11.4 More Matchstick Patterns 11.5 More Examples of Variables 11.6 Use Of Variables in Common Rules 11.7 Expressions with Variables 11.8 Using Expressions Practically 11.9 What is an Equation? 11.10 Solution of an Equation|
|Chapter 12: Ratio and Proportion||12.1 Introduction 12.2 Ratio 12.3 Proportion 12.4 Unitary Method|
|Chapter 13: Symmetry||13.1 Introduction 13.2 Making Symmetric Figures: Ink-blot Devils 13.3 Figures With Two Lines of Symmetry 13.4 Figures with Multiple Lines of Symmetry 13.5 Reflection and Symmetry|
|Chapter 14: Practical Geometry||14.1 Introduction 14.2 The Circle 14.3 A Line Segment 14.4 Perpendiculars 14.5 Angles|
(i) Knowing our Numbers: Consolidating the sense of numbers up to 5 digits, Size, estimation of numbers, identifying smaller, larger, etc. Place value (recapitulation and extension), connectives: use of symbols =, <,> and use of brackets, word problems on number operations involving large numbers up to a maximum of 5 digits in the answer after all operations. This would include conversions of units of length & mass (from the larger to the smaller units), estimation of outcome of number operations. Introduction to a sense of the largeness of, and initial familiarity with, large numbers up to 8 digits and approximation of large numbers)
(ii) Playing with Numbers: Simplification of brackets, Multiples and factors, divisibility rule of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11. (All these through observing patterns. Children would be helped in deducing some and then asked to derive some that are a combination of the basic patterns of divisibility.) Even/odd and prime/composite numbers, Co-prime numbers, prime factorization, every number can be written as products of prime factors. HCF and LCM, prime factorization and division method for HCF and LCM, the property LCM × HCF = product of two numbers. All this is to be embedded in contexts that bring out the significance and provide motivation to the child for learning these ideas.
(iii) Whole numbers: Natural numbers, whole numbers, properties of number (commutative, associative, distributive, additive identity, multiplicative identity), number line. Seeing patterns, identifying and formulating rules to be done by children. (As familiarity with algebra grows, the child can express the generic pattern.)
(iv) Negative Numbers and Integers: How negative numbers arise, models of negative numbers, connection to daily life, ordering of negative numbers, representation of negative numbers on a number line. Children to see patterns, identify and formulate rules. What are integers, identification of integers on the number line, operation of addition and subtraction of integers, showing the operations on the number line (addition of negative integer reduces the value of the number) comparison of integers, ordering of integers.
(v) Fractions: Revision of what a fraction is, Fraction as a part of a whole, Representation of fractions (pictorially and on a number line), fraction as a division, proper, improper & mixed fractions, equivalent fractions, comparison of fractions, addition and subtraction of fractions (Avoid large and complicated unnecessary tasks). (Moving towards abstraction infractions) Review of the idea of a decimal fraction, place value in the context of decimal fraction, interconversion of fractions and decimal fractions (avoid recurring decimals at this stage), word problems involving addition and subtraction of decimals (two operations together on money, mass, length, and temperature)
Introduction to Algebra
(i) Basic geometrical ideas (2 -D): Introduction to geometry. Its linkage with and reflection in everyday experience.
ii) Understanding Elementary Shapes (2-D and 3-D):
(iii) Symmetry: (reflection)
(iv) Constructions (using Straight edge Scale, protractor, compasses)
a) on line b) outside the line.
Concept of Perimeter and Introduction to Area Introduction and a general understanding of perimeter using many shapes. Shapes of different kinds with the same perimeter. Concept of area, Area of a rectangle and a square Counterexamples to different misconceptions related to perimeter and area.
The perimeter of a rectangle – and its special case – a square. Deducing the formula of the perimeter for a rectangle and then a square through pattern and generalization.
(i) What is data - choosing data to examine a hypothesis?
(ii) Collection and organization of data - examples of organizing it in tally bars and a table.
(iii) Pictograph- Need for scaling in pictographs interpretation & construction.
(iv) Making bar graphs for given data interpreting bar graphs+.
The level of the understanding and usage of English by the students of Class VI is going to be considerably more than last year’s curriculum. Students at this stage must have a clear understanding of grammar and verb rules as well as a good command of the language while communicating. The syllabus by CBSE thus encapsulates these skills to be learned by the students.
The Class VI English syllabus for the year 2022-2023 includes one main book and one supplementary book as per CBSE guidelines. The main book encompasses 10 Units - one poem and one lesson each. The supplementary reader has 10 chapters in total.
|1.||Who Did Patrick’s Homework?||A House, A Home|
|2.||How the Dog Found Himself a New Master!||The Kite|
|3.||Taro’s Reward||The Quarrel|
|4.||An Indian – American Woman in Space: Kalpana Chawla||Beauty|
|5.||A Different Kind of School||Where Do All the Teachers Go?|
|6.||Who I Am||The Wonderful Words|
|8.||A Game of Chance||Vocation|
|9.||Desert Animals||What If|
|10.||The Banyan Tree|
The general objectives at this stage are:
At the upper primary level, knowledge of grammar remains a process of discovery combined with a conscious effort to explicitly understand and name grammatical items. However, these should not be taken out of contexts to be treated as discrete teaching items. 67 Syllabus for Classes at the Elementary Level In addition to consolidating the items learned earlier, the following will be introduced and recycled through the upper primary stage.
The objectives listed above are crucial for the understanding and working knowledge of the language English that a Class VI student must possess. These need to be met with precision when going through the curriculum.
Hindi is a crucial language to learn for the students. At this stage, the syllabus progresses towards understanding the language in-depth and incorporates more grammatical exercises and notions. The syllabus includes a supplementary reader that is being introduced for the students in addition to the main book.
The syllabus for Class VI for the session 2022-2023 as per the CBSE guidelines includes two books - one main book and one supplementary reader. The main book consists of both prose and lessons whereas the supplementary reader is the retelling of the Ramayan or Ram Katha in a way that is comprehensible for this age group.
The above-mentioned syllabus is to be covered during the academic year of class VI to help create a base for further secondary learning by the students.
Science is a core subject and plays a key in learning about the world. It comprises biology, chemistry, and physics in a balanced way to create a basic grasp on the ideas to be delved into deeper later. The CBSE guidelines for this year’s syllabus solely focus on one book that takes the students through all the topics.
The curriculum for the session 2022-2023 for class VI science includes the following topics, covering a wide range of concepts essential for the student’s development.
Contents of the book:
|Chapter 1||Food: Where Does it Come from?|
|Chapter 3||Fiber to Fabric|
|Chapter 4||Sorting Materials into Groups|
|Chapter 5||Separation of Substances|
|Chapter 6||Changes Around Us|
|Chapter 7||Getting to Know Plants|
|Chapter 8||Body Movements|
|Chapter 9||The Living Organisms and Their Surrounding|
|Chapter 10||Motion and Measurement of Distances|
|Chapter 11||Light, Shadows, And Reflections|
|Chapter 12||Electricity and Circuits|
|Chapter 13||Fun with Magnets|
|Chapter 15||Air Around Us|
|Chapter 16||Garbage In, Garbage Out|
|Questions||Key Concepts||Resources||Activities/ Processes|
|1. Food Sources of food What are the various sources of our food? What do other animals eat? Components of food What is our food made up of ? Why do we eat a variety of food? Cleaning food How do we separate the grains after harvesting the wheat /rice crop?||Plant parts and animal products as sources of food; herbivores, carnivores, omnivores. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibres, their sources and significance for human health; balanced diet; diseases and disabilities due to food deficiencies. Threshing, winnowing, hand picking, sedimentation, filtration.||Examples of food from different parts of plants and of food from animals sources. Mid Day Meal; Charts, pictures/films of children suffering from food deficiencies and disabilities. Talking to some elders about practices after harvesting the crop; kit materials.||(Periods - 20)Germination of seeds such as mung, chick pea etc.; preparing a chart on food habits of animals and food culture of different regions of India.Studying the variety of food in different regions in India; preparing a menu of balanced diet in the context of the diversity of foods eaten in different parts of the country. Classifying foods according to food components; test for starch, sugars, proteins and fats. Discussion on threshing, winnowing, handpicking; experiments on sedimentation, filtration. Separating mixture of salt and sand.|
|2. Materials Materials of daily use What are our clothes How much salt can be dissolved in a cup of water?||Different types of cloth Solubility, saturated solutions. Amount of substance dissolving varies with temperature. At the same temperature amounts of different substances that dissolve varies.||Sharing of prior Salt, sugar and other common substances, kit items.||(Periods - 26) Whole class discussion. ripening of fruit, curdling of milk. Experiments for testing the solubility of commonly available substances. Experiments on the effect of heating and cooling on solubility. Comparison of solubilities of different substances using non- standard units (eg. spoon, paper cone).|
|3. The World of the Living Things around us Are all things around us living? What is the difference between living and non-living? Are all living things similar? Do all living things move? Where do plants and animals live? Can we grow plants in the dark?The habitat of the living How does habitat affect plants and animals? How do fish live in water? Plants – form and function What is the structure and function of various parts of the plants - stem, leaf and roots? How do different flowers differ from one another? How does one study flowers? Animals – form and function What is inside our bodies? How do animals move? Do all animals have bones in their bodies? How do fishes move? And birds fly? What about snakes, snails, earthworms?||Living/non-living characteristics; habitat; biotic, abiotic (light, temperature, water, air, soil, fire) Habitat varies – aquatic, deserts, mountains etc. plants and animals show adaptation; other plant part modifications like tendrils, thorns etc. Animals in deserts and water.Morphological structure and function of root, stem and leaves. Structure of the flower, differences.Structure and functions of the animal body; Human skeletal system, some other animals e.g. fish, bird, cockroach, snail.||Recollection of diversity of living organisms and the habitat where they live. Potted plants or seeds, pots, etc; thermometer,any water plants, any xerophytic plants, Information on desert and aquatic plants and animals. Plants, flowers, blade, hand lens.Observation of nature; model of skeleton, X-rays of arms or legs, chest, hips, jaws, vertebral column (could be given in the textbook).||(Periods - 36) Listing of things around us, listing of characteristics after making observations say on size, colour, shape etc., categorisation; observations on habitat; observing germination of seeds, also observing under dark conditions; growth and development of domestic animals, hatching of birds’ eggs etc., developing drawing skills. Listing the diverse set of living organisms around us; prepare herbarium specimens of different leaves, plants; studying modifications in plants and animals; observing how different environmental factors (water availability, temperature) affect living organisms; Studying plant parts – types of stems, roots, leaves, seeds; experiment to show conduction by stem, activity to show anchorage by roots, absorption by roots. Study of any flower, counting number of parts, names of parts, cutting sections of ovary to observe ovules. Activities to study X-rays, find out the direction in which joints bend, feel the ribs, backbone etc. Observation/ discussion on movement and skeletal system in other animals.|
|4. Moving Things, People and Ideas Moving How did people travel from one place to another in earlier times? How did they know how far they had travelled? contexts for measuring How do we know that distances. something is moving? How do we know how far it has moved||Need to measure distance (length). Measurement of length. Motion as change in position with time.||Everyday experience; equipment (scale etc.) to measure length. Stories for developing||Measuring lengths and distances. Observation of different types of moving objects on land, in air, water and space. Identification and discrimination of various types of motion. Demonstrating objects having more than one type of movement (screw motion, bicycle wheel, fan, top etc.) Observing the periodic motion in hands of a clock / watch, sun, moon, earth.|
|5. How things work Electric current and circuits How does a torch work? Do all materials allow current to flow through them?Magnets What is a magnet? Where on a magnet do things stick? How is a magnet used to find direction? How do two magnets behave when brought close to each other?||Electric current: Electric circuit (current flows only when a cell and other components are connected in an unbroken loop) Conductor, Insulator.Magnet. Poles of a magnet. A freely suspended magnet always aligns in a particular direction. North and South poles. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.||Torch: cell, bulb or led, wires, key. Mica, paper, rubber, plastic, wood, glass metal clip, water, pencil (graphite), etc. Magnet, iron pieces. Magnet, iron pieces, iron filings, paper. Bar magnet, stand, thread, compass. Two bar magnets, thread, stand.||(Periods - 28) Activity using a bulb, cell and key and connecting wire to show flow of current and identify closed and open circuits. Making a switch. Opening up a dry cell. Experiment to show that some objects (conductors) allow current to flow and others (insulators) do not. Demonstrating how things are attracted by a magnet. Classification of objects into magnetic/ non-magnetic classes. Activity to locate poles of a magnet; activity with iron filings and paper. Activities with suspended bar magnet and with compass needle. Activities to show that like poles repel and unlike poles attract.|
|6. Natural Phenomena Rain, thunder and lightning Where does rain come from? How do clouds form? Light Which are the things we can see through?Magnets What is a magnet? Where on a magnet do things stick? How is a magnet used to find direction? How do two magnets behave when brought close to each other?||Evaporation and condensation, water in different states. Water cycle.Classification of various materials in terms of transparent, translucent and opaque. Magnet. Poles of a magnet. A freely suspended magnet always aligns in a particular direction. North and South poles. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.||Everyday experience; kit items. Previous experience, candle/torch/lamp, white paper, cardboard box, black paper. Magnet, iron pieces. Magnet, iron pieces, iron filings, paper. Bar magnet, stand, thread, compass. Two bar magnets, thread, stand.||Condensation on outside of a glass containing cold water; activity of boiling water and condensation of steam on a spoon. Simple model of water cycle. Discussion on three states of water. (Periods - 26) Discussion, observation; looking across different materials at a source of light. Demonstrating how things are attracted by a magnet. Classification of objects into magnetic/ non-magnetic classes. Activity to locate poles of a magnet; activity with iron filings and paper. Activities with suspended bar magnet and with compass needle. Activities to show that like poles repel and unlike poles attract.|
SST is introduced to the students for the first time in class VI as the 5th subject. It comprises of 3 different subjects - history, social science, and geography. All three have wildly different spheres of topics and tackle them with this year’s curriculum as per CBSE guidelines.
The syllabus for History as per CBSE for the session 2022-2023 covers the basic concepts as the children are introduced to this subject for the first time.
|An Introduction to HistoryWhen, Where and How (a) The time frame under study. (b) The geographical framework. (c) Sources. The Earliest Societies (a) Hunting and gathering as a way of life, its implications. (b) Introduction to stone tools and their use. (c) Case study: the Deccan. The First Farmers and Herders (a) Implications of farming and herding. (b) Archaeological evidence for crops, animals, houses, tools, pottery, burials, etc. (c) Case study: the North-West, and North-East. The First Cities (a) The settlement pattern of the Harappan civilisation. (b) Unique architectural features. (c) Craft production. (d) The meaning of urbanism. (e) Case study: the North-West. Different Ways of Life (a) The Vedas and what they tell us. (b) A contemporary chalcolithic settlement. (c) Case studies: the North-West and the Deccan. Early States (a) Janapadas to Mahajanapadas (b) Case study: Bihar, Magadha and the Vajji confederacy. New Ideas (a) Upanisads. (b) Jainism. (c) Buddhism. The First Empire (a) The expansion of the empire. (b) Asoka (c) Administration. Life in towns and villages (a) The second urbanisation. (b) Agricultural intensification. (c) Case study: Tamil Nadu. Contacts with Distant lands (a) The Sangam texts and long-distance exchange. Suggested regions: the Tamil region, extending to Southeast Asia and the west. (b) Conquerors from distant lands: northwestern and western India. (c) The spread of Buddhism: north India to Central Asia. Political Developments (a) Gupta empire and Harshavardhana. (b) Pallavas and Chalukyas. Culture and Science (a) Literature, including the Puranas, the epics, other Sanskrit and Tamil works. (b) Architecture including early monasteries and temples, sculpture, painting (Ajanta); (c) Science.||Explain the specific nature of the discipline.(a) Familiarise the learner with the major developments to be studied. (b) Develop an understanding of the significance of geographical terms used during the time frame. (c) Illustrate the sources used to reconstruct history. (a) Appreciate the skills and knowledge of hunter- gatherers. (b) Identify stone artefacts as archaeological evidence, making deductions from them. (a) Appreciate the diversity of early domestication. (b) Identify the material culture generated by people in relatively stable settlements. (c) Understand strategies for analyzing these. (a) Appreciate the distinctive life in cities. (b) Identify the archaeological evidence of urban centres. (c) Understand how this is used to reconstruct processes such as craft production. (a) Appreciate that different developments were taking place in different parts of the subcontinent simultaneously. (b) Introduce simple strategies of textual analysis. (c) Reinforce the skills of archaeological analysis already developed. (a) Introduce the concept of the state and its varieties. (b) Understand the use of textual sources in this context. (a) Outline the basic tenets of these systems of thought, and the context in which they developed and flourished. (b) Introduce excerpts from sources relating to these traditions. (a) Introduce the concept of empire. (b) Show how inscriptions are used as sources. (a) Demonstrate the variety of early urban centres— coastal towns, capitals, religious centres. (b) Illustrate the use of archaeological material including coins, sculpture, as well as textual sources to reconstruct social and economic histories. (a) Introduce the idea of different contexts of contact between distant lands, and the motivating forces (including conquest). (b) Examine the implications of journeys within the subcontinent. (c) Illustrate the use of textual and visual material for reconstructing the histories of such contacts. (a) Introduce the idea that strategies of expansion, and their logic, differ. (b) Explain the development of different administrative systems. (c) Understand how prasastis and caritas are used to reconstruct political history. (a) Develop a sense of appreciation of textual and visual traditions of the period. (b) Introduce excerpts from texts and visual material for analysis and appreciation.|
Social Science is a subject which is completely new for children. Hence the class six syllabus by CBSE covers vague topics and tackles the core values of social science.
|UNIT 1: Diversity In this unit we focus on various aspects of diversity. The first section begins by having the child recognise diversity as a fact of being human and understanding diversity as different ways of doing the same thing. The second section builds on this by having the child interrogate societal prejudices against diversity, recognising that the self can be made up of multiple identities and that the Constitution compels us to respect diversity. Section 1 • Diversity as a fact of being human. • What diversity adds to our lives. • Diversity in India. Section 2 • Prejudice and discrimination. • Inequality and discrimination. • Recognition of multiple identities in oneself. • The Constitution and respect for diversity.UNIT 2: Government This unit introduces the student to the idea of government. The first section focuses on the need for it, the history of adult franchise, the various types of governments that exist at present. The second section discusses the key elements that influence the functioning of democractic government. Section 1 • The need for government. • Decision-making and participation. • The quest for universal adult franchise through examples of the sufferagate movement and the anti- apartheid struggle. • Various forms of government and absence of collective sanction. Section 2 Key elements that influence the functioning of democratic government: • Participation and accountability. • Resolution of Conflict. • Concerns for Equality and Justice. UNIT 3: Local Government This unit familiarises the student with both rural and urban local government. It covers the Panchayati Raj, rural administration and urban government and administration. The effort is to have the child draw contrasts and comparisons between the ways in which urban and rural local government function. Section 1 Panchayati Raj • Description of panchayat including electoral process, decision making, implementation of decisions • Role of a gram sabha • Women and the panchayat Section 2 Urban Local Government • Municipal corporation elections, decision making structures • The provision of water and the work of the municipal corporation • Citizens protests to get their grievances addressed Section 3 Rural Administration • Focus on a land dispute and show the role of local police and patwari. • On land records and role of patwari. • On the new inheritance law. UNIT 4: Making a Living This unit focuses on individuals earn a livelihood both in the rural and the urban context. The rural context focuses on various types of farmers and the urban one on various types of occupations people engage in to earn an income. The student should be able to compare and contrast the urban and the rural context. Section 1 Rural Livelihoods • Various types of livelihoods prevalent in a village. • Different types of farmers: middle farmer, landless labourers and large farmers. Section 2 Urban Livelihoods • Difference between primary, secondary and tertiary occupations. • Descriptions of various types of lievelihoods including vegetable vendor, domestic servant, garment worker and bank employee. • Differences between self-employed, regular employment and wage employment. • The interlinkage between rural and urban lives through a discussion of migration.||To enable students to: • understand and appreciate various forms of diversity in their everyday environments, • develop a sensitivity towards pluralism and interdependence, • understand how prejudice can lead to discrimination, • understand the difference between diversity and inequality, • recognise that there are multiple identities within ourselves that we use in different contexts and that these can come into conflict with each other, • understand that the Constitution compels us to respect diversity. To enable students to: • gain a sense of why government is required, • recognise the need for universal adult franchise, • appreciate need to make decisions with collective sanction, • understand key elements that influence the functioning of democracy.To enable children to • understand local level of government functioning, • understand the workings of the pnchayati raj and appreciate its importance, • gain a sense of who performs what role within the local administration, • understand how the various levels of administration at the local level are interconnected, • understand the intricacies involved in the local administration’s provision of water. To enable students to: • understand conditions that underline and impact life strategies of various groups of people, • understand that these conditions and opportunities for making a living are not equally available to all.|
The specific objectives of the course, where it is not clear from the rationale of the approach, are indicated beside the themes to be taught in the course.
The students are introduced to geographical science first time in grade VI which is why the syllabus by CBSE includes the basic terminology and concepts appropriate for their age.
|Planet: Earth in the solar system. Globe: the model of the earth, latitudes and longitudes; motions of the earth rotation and revolution.Maps: essential components of maps distance, directions and symbols. Four realms of the earth: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere: continents and oceans. Planet: Earth in the solar system. Globe: the model of the earth, latitudes and longitudes; motions of the earth rotation and revolution. Maps: essential components of maps distance, directions and symbols. Four realms of the earth: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere: continents and oceans. Major relief features of the earth. India in the world: physiographic divisions of India – mountains, plateaus and plains; climate; natural vegetation and wild life; need for their conservation.||To understand the unique place of the earth in the solar system, which provides ideal condition for all forms of life, including human beings; (Periods-8)To understand two motions of the earth and their effects; (Periods-12) To develop basic skills of map reading; (Periods-10) To understand interrelationship of the realms of the earth; (Periods-12) To understand the unique place of the earth in the solar system, which provides ideal condition for all forms of life, including human beings; (Periods-8) To understand two motions of the earth and their effects; (Periods-12) To develop basic skills of map reading; (Periods-10) To understand interrelationship of the realms of the earth; (Periods-12) To understand major landforms of the earth; (Periods-10) To comprehend broad physiographic divisions of India; To describe the influence of land, climate, vegetation and wildlife on human life; To appreciate the need for conserving natural vegetation and wild life. (Periods-13)|
(i) the principal’s room
(ii) your classroom
Note: Any similar activities may be taken up.
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