EVS Class-5 NCERT Solutions, Chapter 4-: Mangoes Round the Year
NCERT Class 5 EVS Chapter 4 deals with spoilage of food and factors affecting it, how food gets spoilt, methods to keep foods fresh, and preservation of food (with reference to mango jelly and pickles). Class 5 EVS Chapter 4 also emphasises the efforts taken by the family members to make the food for the whole family.
The NCERT textbook (Looking Around) questions are answered in a simple and engaging manner. We also have related ‘Learning Concepts’, and interactive worksheets with solutions. Our ‘Learning Beyond’ segment caters to all the probable questions that the child might think out of curiosity.
Download Chapter 4 Mangoes Round the Year in the PDF format for free. .
Chapter 4: Mangoes Round the Year
Question 1: How did Aman know that the potato sabzi had got spoilt?
Answer : Aman knew that the potato sabzi had gotten spoilt because a foul smell was coming when Nitu opened the lunch box.
Question 2: Have you ever seen some food that has got spoilt? How did you know that it was spoilt?
Yes, I have seen some foods like bread and milk getting spoilt.
I was able to identify spoilt bread by the green patches on it. I also could understand the milk was spoilt because it had curdled.
Question 3: Preeti told Nitu not to eat the potato sabzi. What would have happened if she had eaten it?
Answer: If Nitu had eaten the potato sabzi, she would have fallen sick and suffered from stomach disorders.
Look in your kitchen and write down names of food items that:
(a) Can get spoilt in 2-3 days.
(b) Can be kept for a week.
(c) Would not spoil till one month.
(a) Food items that can get spoilt in 2-3 days are—milk, bread, cooked dal, curries, and boiled rice.
(b) Food items that can be kept for a week are—potato, tomato, onion, carrot, cake, etc.
(c)Food items that would not spoil till one month are—flour, pickles, dry rice, and pulses.
Question 2: Look at your friend’s list and discuss in the class.
My friend’s list also contains similar items. So, we can say that—
(i) Most of the cooked foods get spoilt in 2-3 days.
(ii) Most of the raw vegetables cannot be stored for more than a week.
(iii) Most of the dry grains last for a month or more if stored properly.
Question 3: Will your list be the same in all seasons? What would change?
No, the list will not be the same in all seasons.
The list of food items will change depending on the season. In the rainy season, food gets easily spoilt due to the excess moisture present in the air. However, food items get spoilt quickly in summer than in winter.
Question 4: When food gets spoilt in your house, what do you do with it?
Answer: When food in our house gets spoilt, we throw it away in the garbage bin.
Biji returned the bread
Aman’s Biji went to the market to buy bread. The shop was very crowded. The shopkeeper picked up a packet of bread and gave it to Biji. She looked at it and returned it immediately.
Question 1: Look at the picture of the bread packet here and guess why Biji returned it? How did she find that the bread had got spoilt?
Answer: Biji saw some blackish patches on the bread, which made her return it. She must have checked the expiry date on the packet too.
Look carefully at two-three packets of food items:
Question 1: What can we know from what is written on the packet?
We can know the following things from what is written on a food packet—
(i) Price of the item
(ii) Net weight of the item
(iii) Date of manufacturing
(iv) Date of expiry
v) Nutritional value
Question 2: When you buy anything from the market, what do you look for on the packet?
When I buy anything from the market, I check for the following things—
(i) Manufacturing date
(ii) Expiry date
(iv) Net weight
How does food get spoilt?
The whole class can do this experiment together. Take a piece of bread or roti.
Sprinkle a few drops of water on it and put it in a box.
Close the box. See the bread or roti every day until you find some changes on it.
Make this table on a chart paper and put it up in the classroom. Fill up the chart every day after discussing the changes seen.
|Day||Changes in the bread or roti|
|By touch||By smell||By looking through hand lens||By colour|
|1||Sticky, soft||Faint smell||Normal||Pale white|
|2||Sticky, soft||Slightly stinking smell||White layer||white|
|3||Moist and soft||Fairly strong stinking smell||White layer||white|
|4||Moist and soft||Quite strong stinking smell||Green layer||Greenish-white|
|5||Moist and soft||Very strong stinking smell||Greenish-white layer||Greenish-white|
|6||Moist and soft||Strong stinking smell||Blackish-green layer with tiny structures visible||Greenish- black|
Question 2: Find out the reason for these changes. From where did the fungus come on the bread?
The changes occurred in the bread because it started rotting due to the growth of fungus.
Fungal spores are found in air, and they start to grow as soon as they find suitable environmental conditions. The bread is a favourable place for the fungal spores to grow as it provides a moist surface and food to the spores.
Question 3: Different kinds of food items spoil due to different reasons. Some foods spoil soon, some stay good for long. List some seasons and conditions in which food spoils quickly.
Food items spoil in the following conditions quickly—
(i) In the rainy season due to humidity.
(ii) In the summer season due to high temperature.
(iii) Pickles get spoilt if they come in contact with moisture.
(iv) Green vegetables get spoilt if not kept in the refrigerator.
(v) Cooked food if kept outside for long.
Question 4: Given below are some food items and some simple methods by which these could be kept fresh for 1-2 days. Match the correct pairs:
|Milk||Put in a bowl and keep the bowl in a container with some water.|
|Cooked rice||Wrap in a damp cloth.|
|Green coriander (Dhania)||Boil it.|
|Onion, Garlic||Keep it in a dry open place.|
|Cooked rice||Put in a bowl and keep the bowl in a container with some water.|
|Green coriander (Dhania)||Wrap in a damp cloth.|
|Onion, Garlic||Keep it in a dry open place.|
Question 1: Why was sugar and jaggery mixed into the mango pulp and dried in the sun?
Answer: Sugar and jaggery were mixed into the mango pulp for making mamidi tandra (aam papad). These helped in the hardening of the mango pulp on drying under the sun. Sugar and jaggery also acted as preservatives for storing the mango pulp for a long period of time.
Question 2: Why did Appa first choose the most ripe mangoes to be used for making the mamidi tandra?
Answer: Ripe mangoes contain more juice and less fibres. So, they are the most suitable for making delicious mamidi tandra.
Question 3: How did the brothers make the mamidi tandra? Write down step-by-step what they did for this.
Question 4: What things are made in your house from ripe and unripe mangoes?
In my house, pickles and chutneys are prepared using unripe mangoes.
Aam papad, aam ras, mango milkshake, mango cake, and mango pudding are made using ripe mangoes.
Question 5: Make a list of all the different types of pickles that you know about, and share it with your friends.
Answer: The different pickles I know about are—mango pickle, amla pickle, chilli pickle, lemon pickle, carrot pickle, radish pickle, garlic pickle, etc.
Find Out and Discuss
Question 1: Is there any kind of pickle made in your house? What kind of pickle is it? Who makes it? From whom did they learn to make the pickle?
Yes, there are many kinds of pickles made in my house. They are mango pickle, chilli pickle, lemon pickle, and garlic pickle.
My mother makes these pickles, and she learnt it from her maternal aunt.
Question 2: What all things are needed to make any one type of pickle in your house? How is the pickle made? Find out the recipe and write.
The things which are used to make a pickle are spices, oil, and the base fruit. In my house,
the pickle which is commonly made is the lemon pickle.
Let us see the recipe for lemon pickle.
Ingredients: Lemon, salt, chilli powder, garam masala powder, turmeric powder, and fennel seeds.
(i) The lemons are cleaned, cut in quarters, and collected in a container.
(ii) Next, the fennel seeds are ground and mixed with salt, turmeric powder, chilli powder, and garam masala powder.
(iii) The spice mixture is then rubbed over the lemon slices.
(iv) The seasoned lemon slices, and any accumulated juices are kept in a clean glass jar.
(v) The jar is then left in the sun so that the lemon slices soften and thus, the lemon pickle is ready to eat.
How are these things made in your house?
(i) Papad (ii) Chutney (iii) Badiyan (iv) Sauce
(i) Papad is made from different kinds of lentils, rice flour, and potatoes.
A dough is made using the base ingredient, spices and salt.
A thin papad is then rolled out from the dough, and is left in the sun for drying.
In case of potato papad, potatoes are slightly boiled and thin slices of potatoes are kept in the sun for drying.
After that, the dried papads are deep-fried and are ready to eat.
(ii) Chutney is made from many things. A commonly prepared chutney is the coriander or dhaniya chutney. Lots of fresh, clean coriander leaves, a few cloves of garlic, and some green chillies are grounded in a fine paste. Then, salt and cumin are added as per taste. This chutney is normally eaten fresh, and it can also be preserved for some days by frying this fine paste with oil.
(iii) Badiyan are made from urad grains. These grains are soaked overnight in water and then grounded into a coarse paste. Salt and spices are added as per requirement. Then small lumps are made from the paste and are put on a cloth and left in the sun to dry. Then these dried chunks are deep-fried in the oil.
(iv) My mother usually makes tomato sauce. For making tomato sauce, the tomatoes are first boiled along with garlic and ginger. Then a fine paste is prepared out of it. This paste is then sieved for removing seeds and peels. Then this paste is boiled for around 5 minutes. While boiling, vinegar, salt, red chilli powder, and sugar are added to it. This sauce can be stored for 10-15 days.
Question 4: It is a two-day journey by train from Pune to Kolkata. If you were to go on this trip, what food items would you carry with you? How would you pack them? Make a list on the blackboard of all the packed food. What food would you eat first?
I will carry the following food items with me—
(i) Roti, sabzi and pickle
(ii) Dry foods like biscuits, chips, dry fruits.
(iii) Sattu and churma
I will eat roti and sabzi at the earliest as it cannot be stored for long. The pickle will, however, stay fresh for many days. After that, I can start eating my dry food items, sattu and churma, as they will not get spoilt quickly.
What Have We Learnt
Question 1: Glass jars and bottles are dried well in the sun before filling them with pickles. Why is this done? Do you remember what happened to the bread in the experiment?
Answer: Glass jars and bottles are dried well in the sun to remove moisture, and this is done because moisture may lead to the development of fungus. In the experiment with the bread, the bread got spoilt because of moisture as fungus grew on it.
Question 2: To eat mangoes round the year we make different items like pickles, aam papad, chutney, chikky, etc. List some other food with which we make different things, so that we can enjoy it throughout the year.
The following are some examples of food items which can be enjoyed throughout the year—
(i) Pickles using different fruits and vegetables.
(ii) Kachri and chillies are dried in the sun for later use.
(iii) Potato chips and banana chips are made so that they can last longer.
(iv) Murabba is prepared from amla, which remains good for a long time.
(v) Sweets made from milk generally last for quite a long time.