All About Animals for Class 4 Science - Orchids
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All About Animals for Class 4 Science

  • Animals living on earth can be categorised as vertebrates and invertebrates based on the presence of a backbone.
  • Animals are heterotrophs and depend on plants and other animals for food.
  • Both plants and animals are essential for maintaining a balance in the environment.
  • Humans also use animals for various purposes.
  • The increase in human intervention in animal habitats has led to the evolution of species and the formation of endangered species and extinct species of animals, which is a serious concern.

Types of Animals and Their Interdependence

Question 1:

What Is a Brood Pouch? Give an Example of an Animal Which Has a Brood Pouch on Its Body.

Answers:

  • A brood pouch, also called the marsupium, is a bag-like structure found in marsupials.
  • It is an additional fold of skin that makes a bag-like structure and allows the offspring to enter and live in it until it is mature enough.
  • The marsupials are characterised by premature birth, where the offspring are not strong enough to survive. Hence, this brood pouch helps in their protection.
  • The pouch is located at the lower belly of the animal. It allows the offspring to attach to the nipples of the mother’s body.
kangaroos

Question 2:

What Is the Meaning of Vectors? Give Examples.

Answers:

The organisms that help spread the disease by spreading its causal organism are called vectors.

Examples of vectors are as follows—

  • Female Anopheles mosquito spreads a causal organism of malaria.
  • The Aedes mosquito spreads the causal organism of dengue.
  • Houseflies spread the causal organisms of typhoid, jaundice and diarrhoea.
mosquito
housefly

Question 3:

How Do Gills Help in Respiration?

Answers:

The organisms that help spread the disease by spreading its causal organism are called vectors.

  • Gills are present in some larval forms of amphibians and in fish.
  • The gaseous exchange in gills occurs through the thin membrane that covers the gills.
  • The carbon dioxide-rich blood is transferred to the gills. Carbon dioxide and oxygen get exchanged when the oxygen-rich water drains the gills.
  • Carbon dioxide is released, and oxygen is absorbed.
fish-gills

Question 4:

What Are the Functions of the Lateral Lines in a Fish?

Answers:

  • The lateral lines are present as faint lines of tiny pores from the gill covers to the base of the tail of a fish.
  • It is a group of sensory organs which are sensitive to touch.
  • These sensory organs help detect the movements and pressure changes in surrounding water.
lateral-line

Question 5:

Name an amphibian that has gills.

Answers:

The Axolotl salamanders are amphibians predominantly found in Mexico that have external gills.

axolotol-larva

Question 6:

What Is the Difference Between Vertebrates and Invertebrates?

Answers:

  • The animals with a backbone, also called the vertebral column, are called vertebrates, such as snakes, amphibians, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, etc. The body of a vertebrate can be divided into two equal halves.
  • The animals which do not have a backbone are called invertebrates, such as worms, insects, starfish, etc. An invertebrate's body can be divided into two equal halves or more than two equal halves.

Oviparous Viviparous

Question 1:

What Is Ovoviviparity? Explain With an Example.

Answers:

  • The term ovoviviparity describes a type of reproductive adaptation where the female lays the eggs. These eggs are then nurtured inside the body of a male or female parent till the offspring matures.
  • This is different from the condition where the eggs once laid are nurtured outside the body.
  • In sea horses, the embryos develop inside the male body after the eggs are laid by the female.
sea-horse

Question 2:

What Are the Functions of an Eggshell?

Answers:

  • The eggshell is the outermost covering of an egg, made of calcium.
  • It protects the embryo growing inside from infection and physical injury.
  • It is a calcareous membrane that is porous in nature and facilitates gaseous exchange as well.It is a calcareous membrane that is porous in nature and facilitates gaseous exchange as well.
egg-shell

Question 3:

Why Do Hens Sit on Their Eggs?

Answers:

  • Hens sit on their eggs to provide the heat required for the growth of embryos inside the eggs.
  • They do this until the eggs hatch. This process is called incubation.
hen-and-eggs

Endangered Animals and Their Conservation

Question 1:

Why Are Pangolins Poached?

Answers:

  • Pangolins are hunted for meat and scales.
  • Pangolin scales are sold for high prices in the international market.
  • These scales are used to make dresses, jackets, fashion accessories and medicines.
pangolin

Question 2:

Write the Differences Between the African Rhinoceros and the Indian Rhinoceros.

Answers:

The differences between the African rhinoceros and the Indian rhinoceros are as follows—

1. African rhinoceros1. Indian rhinoceros
2. Two horns are present.2. One horn is present.
3. The body colour is black.3. The body colour is greyish-brown.
4. A few skin folds are present4. Many skin folds are present.
5. Skin is hairy.5. Skin is hairless.
african-rhino
indian-rhino

Question 3:

State the Difference Between Ex-Situ and In-Situ Conservation?

Answers:

The differences between ex-situ and in-situ conservation are given below—

Ex-situ conservationIn-situ conservation
In this type of conservation, endangered animals and plants are preserved outside their natural habitat. In this type of conservation, endangered animals and plants are preserved in their natural habitat.
Example: Zoological gardens.Example: Biosphere reserves and national parks.

Question 4:

Name Four Tiger Reserves of India.

Answers:

The names of four tiger reserves in India are—

  • Sundarban Tiger Reserve
  • Kanha Tiger Reserve
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
  • Melghat Tiger Reserve

Question 5:

How Did the Tasmanian Devil Become an Endangered Animal?

Answers:

  • The Tasmanian Devil is native to the Australian island of Tasmania.
  • Their population dropped due to a contagious cancer disease called the ‘Devil Facial Tumour Disease’.
  • Scientists are trying to protect and preserve these animals by producing anti-cancer vaccines.
tasmaai-and-evill

Question 6:

Name a Famous Bird Sanctuary in India.

Answers:

  • Keoladeo National Park, situated in Rajasthan, is a famous bird sanctuary in India.
  • Ducks, geese, pelicans, cormorants, and even rare Siberian Cranes and eagles are seen in this bird sanctuary.
kepladeo-national-park

Question 7:

Why Is Blubber Found in the Bodies of Aquatic Mammals?

Answers:

  • Blubber is a layer of fatty tissue that is present in aquatic mammals.
  • It acts as an insulating material against cold.
  • It stores energy in the form of fats, which animals use when required.

Question 8:

What Is a Living Fossil?

Answers:

  • Fossil stands for the remains of dead plants and animals, which are studied to identify the characteristics of organisms found on earth in ancient times.
  • A species which does not have any resemblance to the living organism but somewhat resembles a fossil in its characteristics is called a living fossil, such as the horseshoe crab.
horseshoe-crab

Different Types of Birds and Their Habitat

Question 1:

What Kind of Beak Does a Kingfisher Have?

Answers:

  • Kingfishers have long and dagger-like beaks.
  • Their beaks are elongated, which helps them hunt fish.
kingfisher

Question 2:

What Is a Flipper? Name a Few Animals Except Birds That Have Flippers.

Answers:

  • A flipper is a flattened limb-like structure which helps in swimming.
  • Animals that have been adapted to aquatic locomotion have flippers.
  • Sea lions, walruses, seals, penguins and turtles have flippers which help them swim.
animals-with-flippers

Question 3:

How Do Ducks Strain Foods From Excess Water and Other Inedible Objects?

Answers:

  • Ducks have flattened wide beaks.
  • Around the edge of the beaks, they have small teeth-like structures called lamellae.
  • These lamellae help them strain small insects, worms and plants out of the water, which acts as food for them.
birds-beak

Question 4:

Do You Know About an Edible Bird’s Nest?

Answers:

  • The swiftlets of Southeast Asia make edible nests.
  • They prepare their nests with their saliva at the sides of cliffs.
  • These nests are treated as a delicacy.
  • A dish called bird’s nest soup is prepared with these nests, making it one of the most expensive foods in the world.
edible-birds-nests
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