How to Find Atomic Mass Unit(Daltons) - Operations
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Atomic Mass Unit

The atomic mass unit is the measurement of the mass of atoms. Students will learn about the atom definition, the atomic model, atomic number and atomic mass, atomic mass formula, etc. In this discussion, we will relate atomic mass units with mathematical operations, addition sums for class 3, and subtraction sums for class 3.

What Is an Atom?

According to the English physicist and chemist John Dalton, every matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles known as atoms.

Atomic Model:

An atom comprises three small subatomic particles: Protons, Neutrons, and electrons. The protons and neutrons make up the centre of the atom, called the nucleus, and the electron roams around the nucleus in a small cloud. Proton is positively charged, and the electron is negatively charged. The number of protons and electrons in an ordinary atom is the same.

Atom diagram

What Is Atomic Number?

The total number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number. We represent the atomic number as ‘Z’. Atomic numbers are different for different elements. The atomic number of any atom is written as the subscript of the notation of an atom.

Atomic mass and atomic number

Define Atomic Mass Unit.

The elements’ atomic mass is the average mass of the elements’ atoms measured in the atomic mass unit (AMU, also known as Daltons, D).

What Is Atomic Mass?

The atomic mass is the weighted average of all the isotopes of that element, in which the mass of each isotope is multiplied by the abundance of that particular isotope. We signify the atomic mass as ‘A’. Isotopes are atoms with different atomic masses. The atomic mass is written as a superscript of the notation of an atom.

We can easily find the number of neutrons from the notation of any atom. If the number of neutrons is ‘N’ of any atom is, then the atomic mass formula is given below.

Atomic Mass Formula

Atomic Mass Formula

Example:

Praseodymium Has an Atomic Number of 59 and an Atomic Mass of 141. How Many Neutrons Does It Have?

Answer:

Atomic number = Z = 59 and
Atomic mass = A = 141
So, the number of neutrons is
141 – 59 = 82

Subtraction Word Problem

Question 1:

Here Is a List of Isotopes of Plutonium. Find Their Number of Neutrons.

Isotopes Number of neutrons (N)
228Pu94  
229Pu94  
232Pu94  
233Pu94  
234Pu94  
240Pu94  
241Pu94  
242Pu94  
243Pu94  
244Pu94  
245Pu94  
246Pu94  
247Pu94  

Answer:

Isotopes Number of neutrons (N)
228Pu94 N = 228 – 94 = 134
229Pu94 N = 229 – 94 = 135
232Pu94 N = 232 – 94 = 138
233Pu94 N = 233 – 94 = 139
234Pu94 N = 234 – 94 = 140
240Pu94 N = 240 – 94 = 146
241Pu94 N = 241 – 94 = 147
242Pu94 N = 242 – 94 = 148
243Pu94 N = 243 – 94 = 149
244Pu94 N = 244 – 94 = 150
245Pu94 N = 245 – 94 = 151
246Pu94 N = 246 – 94 = 152
247Pu94 N = 247 – 94 = 153

Question 2:

Here Is a List of Elements With Their Atomic Mass And Atomic Numbers. Find the Number of Neutrons of the Elements.

Elements Number of Neutrons
98Tc43 N =
145Pm61 N =
209Po84 N =
210At85 N =
222Pn86 N =
227Ac89 N =
237Np93 N =
243Am95 N =
247Cm96 N =
247Bk97 N =
251Cf98 N =
257Fm100 N =
252Es99 N =
258Md101 N =
261Rf104 N =
259Tc102 N =
277Hs108 N =
266Sg106 N =

Answer:

Elements Number of Neutrons
98Tc43 N = 98 – 43 = 55
145Pm61 N = 145 – 61 = 84
209Po84 N = 209 – 84 = 121
210At85 N = 210 – 85 = 125
222Pn86 N = 222 – 86 = 132
227Ac89 N = 227 – 89 = 138
237Np93 N = 237 – 93 = 144
243Am95 N = 243 – 95 = 148
247Cm96 N = 247 – 96 = 151
247Bk97 N = 247 – 97 = 150
251Cf98 N = 251 – 98 = 153
257Fm100 N = 257 – 100 = 157
252Es99 N = 252 – 99 = 153
258Md101 N = 258 – 101 = 157
261Rf104 N = 261 – 104 = 157
259Tc102 N = 259 – 102 = 157
277Hs108 N = 277 – 108 = 169
266Sg106 N = 266 – 106 = 160

Question 3:

Here Is a Picture of the Three Isotopes of Carbon. Find Their Number of Neutrons.

 Isotopes of carbon

Answer:

 Isotopes of carbon

The number of neutrons in the C-12 atom is
12 – 6 = 6

Isotopes of carbon

The number of neutrons in the C-13 atom is
13 – 6 = 7

Isotopes of carbon

The number of neutrons in the C-13 atom is
14 – 6 = 8

Question 4:

Nickel (Z = 28, a = 58) Has 30 Isotopes That Have the Same Atomic
Number. But Their Atomic Masses Range From a = 48 to a = 78. a) How Many Neutrons Does the Lightest Isotope of Nickel Have?
b) How Many Neutrons Does the Heaviest Isotope of Nickel Have?

Answer:

  1. The lightest isotope of nickel has A = 48.
    so, the number of neutrons = 48 – 28 = 20
  2. The heaviest isotope of nickel has A = 78
    So, the number of neutrons = 48 – 78 = 30

Addition Word Problem:

Question 5:

The Class Teacher Has Given the Students the Number of Neutrons and the Atomic Number of the Following Element. He Also Taught Them That-

Isotopes of carbon

Here Is the List of the Elements. Read the List Carefully and Find Their Atomic Mass. Fill In the Blank Rows. One Is Done for You as an Example.

Element Atomic Number (Z) Number of Protons (N) Atomic Mass (A)
Technetium Z = 43 N = 55 A = N + Z
= 55 + 43
= 98
Promethium Z = 61 N = 84  
Polonium Z = 84 N = 121  
Radon Z = 86 N = 132  
Astatine Z = 84 N = 125  
Curium Z = 96 N = 151  
Fermium Z = 104 N = 157  
Rutherfordium Z = 104 N = 157  

Answer:

Element Atomic Number (Z) Number of Protons (N) Atomic Mass (A)
Technetium Z = 43 N = 55 A = N + Z
= 55 + 43
= 98
Promethium Z = 61 N = 84 A = N + Z
= 61 + 84
= 145
Polonium Z = 84 N = 121 A = N + Z
= 84 + 121
= 205
Radon Z = 86 N = 132 A = N + Z
= 86 + 132
= 218
Astatine Z = 84 N = 125 A = N + Z
= 85 + 125
= 210
Curium Z = 96 N = 151 A = N + Z
= 96 + 151
= 247
Fermium Z = 104 N = 157 A = N + Z
= 100 + 157
= 257
Rutherfordium Z = 104 N = 157 A = N + Z
= 104 + 157
= 261
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