Elements of Weather and Climate - Orchids
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Elements of Weather and Climate

  • The weather of a place indicates its daily atmospheric conditions. The weather of a place changes based on several factors which are called elements of weather and climate.
  • It is the variation of weather conditions that prevail in an area for a long time. The climate of a place shows average atmospheric conditions over a long duration.
  • Weather and climate significantly affect the plants and animals of that area.
  • The animals and plants in an area develop the characteristics based on the weather and climate to survive in the prevailing conditions which is termed as adaptation in animals.

Meaning of Weather and Climate

Question 1:

What Is Meteorology?

Answer:

The branch of science which deals with weather forecasting and studies the changes in the elements of weather and climate is called meteorology.

Question 2:

Why Do Places Lying in the Mountains Receive More Rainfall?

Answer:

  • The mountains are located at a great height from sea level.
  • The wind which blows towards land from the sea carries moisture with it.
  • Such a wind rises when a mountain lies in its path as a barrier.
  • As the wind rises, it cools down, leading to rainfall or precipitation.
Climate on Mountains

Question 3:

Why Do We See the Tops of the Mountains Covered With Snow Almost Throughout the Year?

Answer:

  • The tops of the mountains are at a great height from sea level.
  • The temperature keeps on decreasing as we go up from the sea level.
  • Due to extremely low temperatures, precipitation occurs in the form of snowfall and covers the mountain tops with snow.
  • As the wind rises, it cools down, leading to rainfall or precipitation.
Climate on Mountains

Question 4:

The Temperature Falls As We Move Up the Mountains. Why Do You Think It Happens?

Answer:

  • The air around us not only provides life-supporting gases to breathe but also absorbs heat from the surroundings and maintains an optimum temperature.
  • As we climb the mountains, the air becomes thinner and is not able to retain more heat. Hence, there is a considerable fall in the temperature.

Question 5:

Why Do Places Near Seas and Oceans Have Moderate Climates Throughout the Year?

Answer:

  • The places near seas and oceans have moderate climates throughout the year because of the presence of large water bodies.
  • Water has a high heat capacity. The time required for heating of water body is nearly five times as compared to land.
  • Similarly, when the temperature falls, the heat given out by a water body is nearly five times that of the heat given out by land.
  • Such a phenomenon helps in maintaining an optimum temperature in the places around water bodies. It neither gets too hot nor too cold.

Question 6:

During Which Time or Phase Are the Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in a Day Experienced?

Answer:

The maximum temperature in a day occurs in the afternoon and the minimum in the early morning.

What is Adaptations in Animals?

Question 1:

How Do Animals Survive Without Eating and Drinking During Hibernation?

Answer:

  • Animals feed on a considerable amount of food before going for long winter sleep. It helps them develop good fat reserves in the body, which are used as a source of energy during hibernation.
  • Also, the rate of metabolic activities of animals during hibernation is very low.
  • The rate of heartbeat and breathing are lower than usual, which helps them conserve more energy.
  • There is a fall in the body temperature which reduces the consumption of water too.
Hibernation

Question 2:

What Is Acclimatization? Do We Need To Acclimatize? If Yes, Give an Example.

Answer:

  • Acclimatization indicates the changes that occur in the body of an organism to get accustomed to the changes in climate.
  • Yes, we need to acclimate when we travel to places with a very different climate from the places we live in.
  • For example, while travelling to places at high altitudes, our body takes some time to get used to thin air and low oxygen levels. We tend to fall ill due to the low oxygen available in the air but get acclimatized to it after a few days. It happens because our body increases the number of red blood cells so that they can absorb more oxygen.

Question 3:

How Can a Chameleon Change Its Skin Colour?

Answer:

  • A chameleon has specialised cells called chromatophores in its body.
  • These chromatophores are filled with pigments of different colours.
  • The type of colour the skin of a chameleon reflects at a time depends on the nerve impulse and secretion of hormones initiated due to the external stimulus.
Skin colour of Chameleon

Question 4:

Why Do Penguins Huddle on Extreme Cold, Windy Days?

Answer:

  • The feathers on the body of a penguin are not enough to fight the extreme cold.
  • They huddle so that they can share the heat from the body of other penguins.
  • They keep changing their positions while huddling from the outer to the inner side so that all the members can survive the extreme cold conditions.
Penguins Huddle in groups

Question 5:

The Skin of Elephants Has Many Wrinkles. Why?

Answer:

  • The skin of elephants has many wrinkles. It is an adaptation for survival in the hot climate.
  • The wrinkled skin traps water that takes a longer time to evaporate and keeps an elephant’s body cool.
Skin of Elephants

Question 6:

A Camel Has Long Legs. Do You Think It Is an Adaptation To Survive in Hot Climatic Conditions? If Yes, Give Reasons for the Same.

Answer:

Yes, the long legs of camel are an adaptation to survive in the hot climatic conditions of a desert.

The sand in the desert heats up very quickly and may reach an unbearable temperature. Due to its long legs, the body of a camel remains at a considerable distance from the sand.

Camel Has Long Legs

Question 7:

How Does a Streamlined Body Make Some Animals Better Swimmers?

Answer:

  • While swimming, the body experiences a resistant force due to friction between water and the body’s surface.
  • Such fluid friction is also called drag.
  • The streamlined body helps in decreasing the drag and hence, helps to swim more efficiently.

Question 8:

Why Is Sultanpur in Haryana Famous?

Answer:

  • Sultanpur in Haryana is famous for a variety of bird species.
  • It is renowned for both migratory and resident bird species.
  • The resident bird species include the common spoonbill, Indian roller, black francolin, back-necked stork, etc.
  • The migratory bird species include Siberian crane, greater flamingo, yellow wagtail, and spot billed pelican.
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