Food We Eat for Class 4 Science
- Food we eat helps our body in growth and development.
- Food is necessary to produce energy and meet our body's nutrient demands.
- Food can be obtained from either plants or animals.
- Food is rich in nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fats.
- These nutrients have a specific role to play in the human body.
- Carbohydrates and fats are energy-giving food, proteins are body-building, and vitamins and minerals are protective food.
- Lack of nutrients in our diet may lead to deficiency diseases affecting various body parts.
- We must consume a balanced diet with various components of food to protect our bodies from such diseases.
Components of Food
Why Are Zinc Supplements Given to COVID Patients?
- Zinc is an essential micronutrient that helps in body growth, development and wound healing.
- Zinc supplements can cure respiratory infections that are similar to Covid-19.
Why Do Bodybuilders Take Protein Shakes?
- Bodybuilders exercise to build and tone up their body muscles.
- Protein shakes are extra protein supplements rich in amino acids, which are the building blocks of body muscles.
- Examples of protein-rich food are meat, fish, and soya bean.
What Is Nutrition?
- The process by which we obtain nutrients and energy from food for body growth and development is called nutrition.
- The mode of nutrition is either autotrophic, like plants or heterotrophic, like animals.
What Is Anaemia, and How Can It Be Treated?
- Anaemia is a deficiency disease characterised by low levels of haemoglobin, a red pigment in our blood.
- Haemoglobin plays a vital role in the transport of oxygen in our body.
- To treat anaemia, we should intake foods rich in iron like liver, spinach, red meat, raw banana etc.
What Is an Essential Micronutrient?
- Vitamins and minerals are essential micronutrients.
- These nutrients are needed in small amounts but are essential to boost our body’s immunity.
- These are also called protective foods because they help us to fight against diseases.
- Examples: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Iron, and Zinc.
What Is Glycogen?
- Glycogen is a carbohydrate.
- The building unit of glycogen is glucose. A large number of glucose molecules get linked together to form glycogen.
- The food we eat is used to produce energy. The extra food not utilised immediately for energy production gets stored in our body as glycogen to form a layer of fat.
- This food is used by the body to produce energy when required.
What Is Dehydration?
- Dehydration is the extreme loss of bodily fluids, affecting the body's essential functions.
- A few symptoms of dehydration are- feeling thirsty, excreting dark yellow coloured urine, and feeling lightheaded and tired.
- ORS helps to manage the loss of body fluids.
Why Is Calciferol Essential for the Body?
- Vitamin D is known as calciferol.
- This vitamin helps to absorb calcium from a variety of foods. Calcium helps calcify bones and makes our bones and teeth stronger.
- Foods like mushrooms, liver, eggs, and sea fish are rich in calciferol.
How Are Vitamins Categorised?
Vitamins can be categorised into two types:
|Fat-soluble vitamins||Water soluble vitamins|
|1. These vitamins are soluble in fats like oil.||1. These vitamins are soluble in water.|
|2. These vitamins are stored in the liver.||2. These vitamins are not stored as much as fat-soluble vitamins.|
|3. Excess intake of these vitamins can cause vitamin toxicity and hypervitaminosis.||3. These vitamins are metabolised very fast and rapidly excreted in the urine.|
|Example-Vitamin A, D, E, K.||Example-Vitamin B complex and vitamin C.|
What Is Scurvy, and How Can It Be Treated?
- Scurvy is a deficiency disease that is caused due to a lack of vitamin C.
- A few distinctive symptoms of scurvy are swollen and bleeding gums, teeth sometimes falling out, skin bruises and excessive joint pain, and feeling tired and restless.
- Scurvy can be treated with vitamin C supplements.
What Is the Meaning of Staple Food?
- The food that makes up a significant portion of our diet is called staple food.
- Rice and chapatti (wheat) are a staple food in our country.
How Can Starch Be Identified in a Food?
- Starch can be identified using an iodine solution.
- Iodine solution gives a blue-black colour in the presence of starch.
What Is Night Blindness, and How Can It Be Treated?
- Night blindness is a deficiency disease caused due to deficiency of vitamin A.
- It is characterised by excessive squinted and blurred vision at night.
- Vitamin A supplements can treat night blindness. This vitamin treats dry cornea and damaged retina and thus can improve vision.
- Some examples of food rich in Vitamin A are eggs, carrots and green leafy vegetables.
What Is Vitamin B Complex?
- The Vitamin B complex is a group of vitamins soluble in water.
- The Vitamin B complex is made up of eight types of vitamins, which are- vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12.
- This group of vitamins helps in the metabolism of cells, regulation of appetite and digestion and maintaining cardiovascular health.
What Is Kwashiorkor?
- Kwashiorkor is a severe form of malnutrition caused due to deficiency of proteins in a child's body.
- The symptoms of kwashiorkor are- stunted growth and fluid retention in the body tissues.