Natural Disasters Class 5 EVS - Orchids
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Natural Disasters

  • Anything that leads to loss of life and property is a disaster. Floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis etc., are some examples of types of natural disasters.
  • Natural disasters cause damage to human properties, damage vegetation, and livestock.
  • The government and non-governmental organisations arrange several rehabilitation programmes to rescue people from the natural disaster-affected zones.
  • The following concept is about various natural disasters and their consequences.
  • Read more about Earthquake, floods, cyclones, hurricane and Tsunami.

Flood and Earthquake

Question 1:

What Is the Ring of Fire?

Answer:

  • The Ring of Fire is a hot zone around the Pacific Ocean.
  • It starts in New Zealand and extends up to South America.
  • 90% of earthquakes happen in this zone.
  • The sea bed around the Ring of Fire zone has abundant active volcanoes that explode and cause earthquakes in this zone.

Question 2:

Can an Earthquake Change the Length of a Day?

Answer:

  • Yes, an earthquake can change the length of a day.
  • Earthquakes with high magnitudes can shorten the length of a day.
  • It happens because these types of earthquakes can change the Earth's axis.
  • Scientists believe that the 2004 Sumatran earthquake shortened the length of the day by 6.8 microseconds.
  • The magnitude of this earthquake was around 9.1 on the Richter scale.

Question 3:

Which Types of Earthquakes Are Deadlier?

Answer:

  • Earthquakes with brief shaking are deadlier than prolonged shaking.
  • The magnitude of a brief shake is higher than the magnitude of a prolonged shake.

Question 4:

What Is an Aftershock?

Answer:

  • Most earthquakes last a few seconds, but the tectonic events do not stop right after the mainshock.
  • A sequence of shocks is produced as an aftereffect of the main shock, called an aftershock.
  • An aftershock can be equally strong and deadly as the main shock.
  • Aftershocks may appear after three days, three months and even after many months.
What Is an Aftershock?

Question 5:

What Is a Hypocentre?

Answer:

  • Truffle mushrooms are rare and one of the most expensive mushrooms.
  • The point below the surface of the Earth from where the seismic waves originate, leading to an earthquake, is called a hypocentre.
  • The hypocentre of an earthquake is located right below the epicentre.
Hypocentre

Question 6:

Write About the Strongest Earthquake in History.

Answer:

  • The strongest and the deadliest earthquake happened in 1960 in Chile on 22 nd May.
  • It is also known as the famous 1960 Valdivia earthquake.
  • The magnitude of this earthquake was very high, somewhere around 9.5 on the Richter scale.
  • It lasted 10 minutes and destroyed all human infrastructures, causing massive fatalities.

Effects of Tsunamis, Hurricanes and Cyclones

Question 1:

What Is a Tornado?

Answer:

  • A tornado is a deadly and destructive rotating cyclonic storm that originates from the base of a thunderstorm.
  • The speed limit of a tornado could be 300 miles per hour.
  • Tornados are a common disaster in Australia, South America, Asia and Africa.

Question 2:

What Is a Tropical Depression?

Answer:

  • A tropical depression is the first stage of a tropical weather event.
  • They are cyclones characterised by winds with a speed of 38 miles per hour.
  • They can lead to heavy rainfall, floods and thunderstorms.

Question 3:

What Is the 'Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale'?

Answer:

  • The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale is a sorting scale used to check the magnitude of intense tropical storms in the Western Hemisphere.
  • This scale is used for stronger storms than 'tropical storms' that become actual hurricanes.
  • This scale has several categories according to which hurricanes are separated as per the strength of their maximum wind speeds.

Question 4:

What causes a Tsunami? Can a volcano eruption lead to a tsunami?

Answer:

  • An earthquake near or on the ocean floor leads to significant and sudden water displacement, resulting in a tsunami.
  • Volcanic eruptions produce waves which may displace large amounts of water in water bodies leading to a Tsunami.
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