- Anything that leads to loss of life and property is a disaster. Floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis etc., are some examples of types of natural disasters.
- Natural disasters cause damage to human properties, damage vegetation, and livestock.
- The government and non-governmental organisations arrange several rehabilitation programmes to rescue people from the natural disaster-affected zones.
- The following concept is about various natural disasters and their consequences.
- Read more about Earthquake, floods, cyclones, hurricane and Tsunami.
Flood and Earthquake
What Is the Ring of Fire?
- The Ring of Fire is a hot zone around the Pacific Ocean.
- It starts in New Zealand and extends up to South America.
- 90% of earthquakes happen in this zone.
- The sea bed around the Ring of Fire zone has abundant active volcanoes that explode and cause earthquakes in this zone.
Can an Earthquake Change the Length of a Day?
- Yes, an earthquake can change the length of a day.
- Earthquakes with high magnitudes can shorten the length of a day.
- It happens because these types of earthquakes can change the Earth's axis.
- Scientists believe that the 2004 Sumatran earthquake shortened the length of the day by 6.8 microseconds.
- The magnitude of this earthquake was around 9.1 on the Richter scale.
Which Types of Earthquakes Are Deadlier?
- Earthquakes with brief shaking are deadlier than prolonged shaking.
- The magnitude of a brief shake is higher than the magnitude of a prolonged shake.
What Is an Aftershock?
- Most earthquakes last a few seconds, but the tectonic events do not stop right after the mainshock.
- A sequence of shocks is produced as an aftereffect of the main shock, called an aftershock.
- An aftershock can be equally strong and deadly as the main shock.
- Aftershocks may appear after three days, three months and even after many months.
What Is a Hypocentre?
- Truffle mushrooms are rare and one of the most expensive mushrooms.
- The point below the surface of the Earth from where the seismic waves originate, leading to an earthquake, is called a hypocentre.
- The hypocentre of an earthquake is located right below the epicentre.
Write About the Strongest Earthquake in History.
- The strongest and the deadliest earthquake happened in 1960 in Chile on 22 nd May.
- It is also known as the famous 1960 Valdivia earthquake.
- The magnitude of this earthquake was very high, somewhere around 9.5 on the Richter scale.
- It lasted 10 minutes and destroyed all human infrastructures, causing massive fatalities.
Effects of Tsunamis, Hurricanes and Cyclones
What Is a Tornado?
- A tornado is a deadly and destructive rotating cyclonic storm that originates from the base of a thunderstorm.
- The speed limit of a tornado could be 300 miles per hour.
- Tornados are a common disaster in Australia, South America, Asia and Africa.
What Is a Tropical Depression?
- A tropical depression is the first stage of a tropical weather event.
- They are cyclones characterised by winds with a speed of 38 miles per hour.
- They can lead to heavy rainfall, floods and thunderstorms.
What Is the 'Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale'?
- The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale is a sorting scale used to check the magnitude of intense tropical storms in the Western Hemisphere.
- This scale is used for stronger storms than 'tropical storms' that become actual hurricanes.
- This scale has several categories according to which hurricanes are separated as per the strength of their maximum wind speeds.
What causes a Tsunami? Can a volcano eruption lead to a tsunami?
- An earthquake near or on the ocean floor leads to significant and sudden water displacement, resulting in a tsunami.
- Volcanic eruptions produce waves which may displace large amounts of water in water bodies leading to a Tsunami.