Adaptations in Plants and Animals
- Adaptation is either physical features or behavioural features of living organisms that help them to survive better in their natural habitats.
- Adaptations in Plants and Animals are based on the habitat they are found in.
- Specific adaptive features can be seen in the xerophytes and desert animals.
- These adaptations get expressed in a species over a long period—for instance, the long necks of giraffes.
Adaptations in Plants
What is Phylloclade? Give an Example.
- A phylloclade is a flattened petiole.
- The petiole is the part that attaches the leaf to the main branch.
- Such an adaptation enables the petiole to perform photosynthesis like leaves and store food.
What Kind of Stomata Are Seen in a Cactus?
- Sunken stomata are found in a cactus.
- The term 'sunken stomata' stands for the stomatal pores embedded in the leaf's deep tissue layers.
- Such an adaptation of desert plants reduces water loss due to transpiration as the stomata on the leaf's surface are more exposed to sunlight.
Why Do Cacti Have Succulent Stems?
- Succulent stems are an adaptation of the cactus plant to survive in the hot climatic conditions of the desert.
- This succulent stem enables it to perform photosynthesis and store water.
- Leaves in a cactus plant are either modified to spines or absent.
Write Two Other Names of the Prairie.
- The areas which are majorly covered with grasslands and have a moderate climate with moderate temperature and rainfall are called prairies.
- Prairies are also called Pampas and Savannas.
What Are Epiphytes? Why Do They Grow or Climb on Other Plants?
- The plants which grow on other plants are called epiphytes, such as ferns and orchids. These are not parasitic plants.
- They are generally found in dense rainforests and do not receive optimum sunlight for performing photosynthesis.
- Hence, they grow on other trees to receive sunlight and get support.
Why Do Some Rainforest Plants Have Buttress Roots?
- Some rainforest plants have buttress roots as they grow in shallow soil.
- These roots support the trees to stand firmly on the top layer of the soil and prevent them from falling.
- These roots do not grow deeper into the soil and derive nutrients from the top soil.
Why Are Tundra Plants Low-Lying and Clumped? State Other Prominent Features of Plants Found in the Tundra.
- Tundra habitats are characterised by extreme cold conditions for most of the year.
- Clumping protects them from cold and snow.
- These plants have shallow roots that allow them to absorb and bloom quickly in the short span of summers. Their leaves are comparatively darker, due to which they can absorb more sunlight.
Why Do Water Lilies Have Giant Leaves?
- The major part of the water lily plant remains submerged in water.
- Only the leaves float above the water's surface. The leaves are large and so can absorb the maximum amount of sunlight for photosynthesis.
Why Do Seedlings Grow Inside the Fruits of Mangrove Plants?
- Mangroves grow in coastal areas where the majority of the land is submerged in water.
- This type of condition is not suitable for the germination of seeds. The seed may die due to a lack of oxygen or air because of waterlogging.
- Due to these factors, mangroves have adapted a unique way of reproduction. The seed falls on the ground after germination so that the root and shoot systems are quickly established, and a new plant starts growing.
- This phenomenon is also called viviparity.
Why Do Whales Have Blowholes Despite Being Marine Animals?
- Though whales live in an aquatic habitat, they do not resemble fishes.
- Whales are marine mammals; like all mammals, they breathe through their lungs, unlike fishes that use gills.
- The blowhole allows the whale to breathe in air while it comes to the water's surface.
What Are Cold-Blooded Animals?
- Some animals cannot regulate their body temperature with the changes in climatic conditions and are termed cold-blooded, such as fishes, reptiles, and amphibians.
- They depend on external heat to maintain their body temperature. For the same reason, these animals are often seen basking in the sun.
Why Do Polar Bears Have White Fur but Sloth Bears Do Not?
- Polar bears are found in habitats where the land is covered with snow for a maximum of a year.
- Their white body covering allows them to blend with the surroundings of their habitat.
- Sloth bears are found in dense forests. White covering would not allow them to hide in the forest vegetation. Hence, they have a dark body covering.
Mention the Adaptive Features of Porcupines.
The adaptive features of porcupines are as follows—
- Their body is covered with quills which they use to defend themselves when predators attack
- They have strong and sharp claws, which help them dig soil, tear tree bark, uproot plant roots, and pick berries.
- Porcupines have sharp front teeth, which help them crack open nuts and seeds.
What Are Ink Glands? Name Two Animals That Have Ink Glands Except for the Octopus.
- The ink gland is a sac-like structure found in some marine animals.
- They are located between the gills.
- This gland releases a dark pigmented ink-like substance when the animal faces danger.
- Animals that have ink glands other than octopus are squid and cuttlefish.
Why Do Elephants Have Tusks and Massive Ears?
- The massive ears of elephants are an adaptation to hear the faintest sound from a distance. Also, they help in regulating body temperature.
- Their ears have thin blood vessels, which lose enormous body heat when required. So, we often see elephants e flapping their ears.
- They live in dense forests. Hence, their tusks enable them to bore riverbeds, rip the tree barks and clear their paths.
How Is a Deer Adapted to Living in a Forest?
Deer show the following adaptations which enable them to live in forests—
- They have strong legs and girdles, which make them fast runners. It helps them protect themselves from being preyed on very often.
- Their eyes are on the sides of their head, which broaden their view of sight.
- Their ears are highly mobile and cup structured, which allows them to gather more sound waves.
How Do Puffer Fish Protect Themselves From Their Predators?
- Pufferfish are also called blowfish. They are slow swimmers and can be easily targeted by predators.
- They are adapted to increase the size of their bodies significantly by drinking a large amount of water.
- They also release toxic chemicals for their protection from predators.