Rocks and Minerals - Orchids
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Rocks and Minerals

  • Rocks and Minerals have been harnessed from nature for a long time for various purposes.
  • Minerals are inorganic substances formed naturally in the earth and constitute the earth’s rocks, sand, and soil.
  • They are extracted from naturally occurring rocks called ores.
  • Minerals are an essential part of our lives.
  • Many things in our homes are made of minerals - for example, the kitchen slab, the marble floors, the diamond jewellery, etc.
  • The study of minerals is called mineralogy.

Types of Rocks and Minerals

Question 1:

What Is Smelting?

Answer:

Extracting minerals from their ores by applying heat is called smelting. Many metals like copper, silver, and iron are extracted by this process.

Question 2:

What Are Mafic and Felsic Rocks?

Answer:

  • Mafic rock is a type of igneous rock rich in magnesium and iron.
  • Felsic rock is a type of igneous rock that is rich in silica.

Question 3:

What Do You Understand by the Term ‘Texture’ of Rocks?

Answer:

The size, shape, and arrangement of the mineral crystals on the rock indicate the ‘texture’ of the rock.

Question 4:

What Do You Understand by Diagenesis?

Answer:

The physical and chemical changes affecting the formation of sediments and the sedimentation process are called diagenesis.

Question 5:

Do Microbes Play a Role in the Formation of Rocks?

Answer:

  • Yes, microbes play a role in the formation of rocks.
  • They grow on the surface of rocks and facilitate the process of weathering and sedimentation.

Question 6:

What Is Petrology?

Answer:

The scientific study of rocks and the conditions of their formation is called petrology.
It deals with the three major types of rocks—igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.

Question 7:

What Is Diamond Made Up Of?

Answer:

Diamond is made up of carbon.

Question 8:

Diamond and Graphite Are Made Up of Carbon. But a Diamond Is the Hardest Substance Known, and Graphite Can Be Broken Easily. State the Reason Behind It.

Answer:

  • The arrangement of carbon atoms in diamond and graphite is quite different.
  • Due to this differential arrangement, diamond is the hardest substance known, and graphite can be broken easily.

Question 9:

Graphite Is Which Type of Rock?

Answer:

Graphite is a type of metamorphic rock.

Question 10:

What Is Metamorphism?

Answer:

The phenomenon by which a rock changes over time due to different changes like pressure, heat, and chemical activities is called metamorphism.

Question 11:

How Can We Categorise Sedimentary Rocks Based on Their Mode of Formation?

Answer:

Based on the mode of formation, sedimentary rocks can be classified as follows—

  • Organically formed sedimentary rocks
  • Chemically formed sedimentary rocks
  • Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks

Question 12:

What Do You Understand by the ‘Hardness’ of a Mineral?

Answer:

  • The degree to which a mineral resists any physical scratches is called its hardness.
  • It is determined by scratching a mineral against the surface of another mineral whose hardness value is known.
  • Diamond possesses the highest mineral hardness.

Uses of Rocks

Question 1:

What Is Clay Mudstone? State Its Use.

Answer:

Clay mudstone is a type of sedimentary rock. Its uses are as follows—

  • It is used to make ceramic pots.
  • It is used for making tiles and pipes.

Question 2:

Can We Consider the Salt We Use in Our Kitchens as a Mineral?

Answer:

  • Salt, which we use in our kitchens, is a crystalline mineral composed of sodium and chlorine.
  • It is obtained by evaporating seawater.

Question 3:

How Is Glass Synthesised?

Answer:

  • Glass is formed by melting limestone, a sedimentary rock.
  • Along with limestone, soda ash and sand are also melted at a very high temperature, leading to glass formation.
  • Glass behaves like a liquid at a very high temperature and turns into a solid at room temperature.

Question 4:

What Is Concrete? State Its Uses.

Answer:

Clay mudstone is a type of sedimentary rock. Its uses are as follows—

  • Concrete is an artificially prepared mixture of sand, gravel, and cement.
  • The preparation of concrete resembles a conglomerate.
  • It is used to make the base of almost every building around us.
  • It is used for making roads, buildings, fences etc.
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