States of Matter - Orchids
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States of Matter

  • Anything that occupies space and has mass and volume is called matter.
  • The matter is made up of microscopic particles called atoms.
  • The force of attraction between atoms is responsible for the states of matter.
  • Matter exists in three states, i.e. solid, liquid and gas.
  • The states of matter can be interconverted by changes in external factors like pressure and temperature.

Properties of Solid, Liquid and Gas

Question 1:

What Is Dry Ice?

Answer:

  • Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
  • It looks like snow and is used as a refrigerant.
  • Dry ice sublimes without melting like naphthalene.
  • It is mainly used to transport meat, fish and ice cream.
Dry ice

Question 2:

Which Metal Is Liquid at Room Temperature?

Answer:

  • Mercury is a metal that exists in liquid form at room temperature.
  • Mercury is a heavy metal and looks silver in colour.
  • Mercury is used in thermometers to measure temperatures.
which metal is liquid at room temperature

Question 3:

Do Gases Always Float Around?

Answer:

  • The molecules of gases have the least attractive forces between them.
  • It is the reason why the molecules of gases always float around.
  • If the temperature and pressure are reduced, the gas may get condensed, turn into a liquid, and not float in liquid form.

Question 4:

Why Can We Easily Compress a Gas but Not a Liquid?

Answer:

  • A gas can be easily compressed because the particles of a gas are not tightly packed and have large intermolecular spaces.
  • On the contrary, liquids cannot be compressed easily as they have fewer intermolecular spaces than gases.
  • Liquids also have a fixed volume that can be measured.

Question 5:

What Is the Hardest Substance Known on Earth? Write a Few Uses of It.

Answer:

Diamond is the hardest substance on Earth.
It has the following uses:

  • Diamond is a precious stone, and it is used to make pieces of jewellery.
  • Diamond is used in the glass-making industry as a glass cutter.
  • Diamond dust is used to make cosmetics and medicines.

Question 6:

Why Do Liquids Permanently Settle at the Bottom of the Container but Not Gases?

Answer:

  • Substances with higher density permanently settle first than the substances with lower density.
  • Liquids permanently settle down at the bottom of the container due to the action of gravitational force on them, as they are denser than the gaseous molecules.

Question 7:

What Is the Strongest Manufactured Material?

Answer:

  • Graphene is the strongest manufactured material.
  • It is a transparent material that is made up of carbon.
  • Carbon is the structural element of charcoal and graphite.
Graphene

Question 8:

Name a Few Physical Properties of Matter.

Answer:

A few properties of matter are- colour, hardness, odour, mass, length and volume.

Changing States of Matter

Question 1:

State the Difference Between Reversible and Irreversible Changes?

Answer:

The differences between reversible and irreversible changes are-

Reversible change Irreversible change
A change that can be reversed is called reversible change. A change that cannot be reversed is called irreversible change.
After this change, the matter can return to its original state. After this change, the matter cannot return to its original state.

Example- Evaporation.

Example- Rusting of iron.

Question 2:

Categorise the Following Into Sublimable and Non-sublimable Substances.
Dry Ice, Iodine, Sugar, Camphor, Naphthalene, Arsenic, Salt, Alum.

Answer:

The list of substances given above is categorised as follows:

Sublimable substances Non-sublimable substances
  1. Dry ice
  2. Iodine
  3. Camphor
  4. Naphthalene
  5. Arsenic
  1. Sugar
  2. Salt
  3. Alum

Question 3:

Write Which of the Following Are Reversible and Irreversible Changes.

Reversible and irreversible changes
Reversible and irreversible changes
Reversible and irreversible changes
Reversible and irreversible changes
Reversible and irreversible changes
Reversible and irreversible changes

Answer:

  1. Irreversible change.
  2. Irreversible change.
  3. Reversible change.
  4. Reversible change.
  5. Irreversible change.
  6. Irreversible change.

Question 4:

What Is the Boiling and Freezing Point of Water?

Answer:

  • The boiling point of water is 100°C.
  • The freezing point of water is 0°C.

Question 5:

Explain a Few Factors Affecting the Rate of Evaporation.

Answer:

  • Temperature: The rate of evaporation increases with an increase in the temperature.
  • Wind velocity: The rate of evaporation increases with an increase in wind velocity.
  • Surface area: Larger the surface area higher is the rate of evaporation.

Question 6:

Why Are Both Gases and Liquids Called Fluids?

Answer:

  • Gases and liquids are called fluids as they can flow due to weak intermolecular forces between their molecules.
  • They do not have fixed shapes and sizes and take the shape of their container.

Question 7:

What Is the Fourth State of Matter?

Answer:

The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is fluid and a good conductor of electricity.

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