Types of Food We Eat for Class 5 science - Orchids
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Types of Food We Eat for Class 5 Science

Anything that gives energy is called food. We eat different types of food containing various nutrients. Food mainly comprises carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Food is necessary for the continuity of life and the growth of living organisms.

Plants make their food from the ultimate source of energy- the Sun. Plants are the major source of food on Earth. All consumers, directly and indirectly, depend on plants for food. Plants are called producers because they can prepare their food by photosynthesis.

The different forms of food we eat have different nutritional values and produce different amounts of energy. It is necessary to consume a balanced diet to meet all the body's dietary demands.

Why do we Need to Eat Food

Question 1:

How Carbohydrates and Fats Are Different From Each Other Even Though They Both Are Made by Plants in the Same Process?

Answers:

  • Plants make food in the form of glucose which ultimately combines to form carbohydrates.
  • Glucose is the basic unit of carbohydrates found in food.
  • These long chains of carbohydrates link together to form longer chains of fats.
  • Hence, it can be concluded that the chains of fat molecules are longer and more complex than carbohydrates.
  • Another difference between fats and carbohydrates is in terms of energy produced by them. The energy released by fats is double the amount released by carbohydrates.

Question 2:

What Is a Leguminous Plant? What Enables Leguminous Plants to Make Proteins?

Answers:

  • The plants which bear pods are called leguminous plants. Examples: Pea, gram, moong, etc.
  • Leguminous plants have root nodules that are inhabited by a bacterium called Rhizobium. It helps convert the nitrogen in the air into a form that plants can use.
  • Plants utilise this usable nitrogen during the process of photosynthesis to make proteins.
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Question 3:

Why Does the Doctor Suggest Increasing the Intake of Raw Fruits When a Person Is Sick?

Answers:

The intake of raw fruits helps in the following ways—

  • Raw fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals, which help increase immunity that leads to a quick recovery.
  • They are rich in water; hence keep the body hydrated.
  • Raw fruits are rich in fibres that help in the digestion of food.
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Question 4:

What Is Roughage? Why Should Roughage Be an Essential Part of Our Diet Even Though It Has No Nutritional Value?

Answers:

The food rich in fibre and cellulose is considered roughage. Roughage should be an essential part of even though it has no nutritional value because it aids in the movement of food in the alimentary canal, thus improving the process of digestion.

Food Chain and Food Web

Question 1:

Explain How the Slight Environmental Change Can Impact the Food Chain.

Answers:

  • Any intervention in the environment affects the number and habitat of plants and animals.Any intervention in the environment affects the number and habitat of plants and animals.
  • An increase or decrease in the number of organisms at any trophic level of a food chain affects the whole food chain.

Question 2:

Why Is Only 10% of the Energy Transferred to Every Successive Trophic Level in a Food Chain? What Happens to the Remaining 90% of the Energy?

Answers:

The energy at each trophic level is consumed because of the following reasons—

  • Energy is used by consumers for various living processes like respiration, digestion, locomotion, etc.
  • Some amount of energy is lost in the environment in the form of heat.
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Question 3:

What Do You Understand by a Parasitic Food Chain? How Is It Different From Other Food Chains?

Answers:

  • Parasitism is the mutual relationship between living organisms in which one organism benefits from the other by causing harm to it.
  • The organism that provides nutritional benefits is called the host. The dependent organism that causes harm to the host is called the parasite. For example, the head louse that is found on people’s scalp. It sucks blood from the scalp for its nutrition, thereby causing harm to the host.
  • The food chain, which shows the exchange of food between the parasite and the host, is called the parasitic food chain.
  • It is different from the other food chains because—
    • Generally, the number of consumers decreases with the successive levels of the food chain. But in the case of a parasitic food chain, the number of organisms may increase instead of decrease. For example, many lice can depend on a single buffalo for food.
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Balanced Diet

Question 1:

How Do We Get Energy From Food We Eat?

Answers:

The food is processed by the following steps inside our body for the production of energy—

  • The food is converted into simple nutrients with the help of the digestive system.
  • These simple nutrients reach the cells of our body along with the blood.
  • In the cells, these nutrients are oxidised in the presence of oxygen to produce energy.

Question 2:

Can We Obtain Energy Directly From the Food We Eat?

Answers:

No, it is impossible to obtain energy directly from our food. Food is complex and cannot be absorbed by our blood; hence it cannot be utilised by the cells in the body.

Therefore, food is digested, i.e., converted into simple nutrients, after which the bloodstream absorbs it.

Food Preservation

Question 1:

How Does Oil Act as a Preservative in Food and Do Not Allow the Microbes to Grow?

Answers:

  • Oil makes a layer between the food item and the air, thereby not allowing air to interact with the food item.
  • The presence of air is a necessary condition for microbes to multiply. Hence, the oil layer does not allow them to grow and therefore prevents the rotting of food.

Question 2:

Which Gas Is Used for Preserving Packed Food?

Answers:

Nitrogen gas is used for preserving packed food items.

Question 3:

What Are Decomposers? Why Are Decomposers Necessary for the Environment? What Will Happen in Their Absence?

Answers:

  • The organisms that convert dead animals and plants into simple nutrients are decomposers.
  • Decomposers convert biodegradable waste produced in the environment to simple nutrients that mix with the soil.
  • Decomposition creates a new space for organisms to grow and live.
  • In the absence of decomposers, all waste produced will start accumulating in our environment.

Question 4:

Why Does Food Stored in Extremely Low Temperatures Not Rot for a Long Time?

Answers:

  • Microbes need an optimum temperature of 25ºC-35ºC to grow and multiply.
  • Thus, extremely low temperatures do not favour microbial growth, preventing food from rotting.
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