Different Types and Parts of Plants | Grade 1 Science | ORCHIDS
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Concept: Types and Parts of Plants

You must have seen many green plants growing in your surroundings. Some of these plants are tall and bushy, and some are small and feeble. How come every plant is different? Why some of them are huge and some are tiny? This section will teach us about the types of plants we see around us.

What are plants?

  • Plants are living beings and an important part of nature.
  • They can make their food by the process of photosynthesis.
  • Plants are green in colour due to the presence of a pigment called chlorophyll.

Types of plants:

The plants we see around us can be broadly divided into the following groups

  • Climbers
  • Creepers
  • Herbs
  • Shrubs
  • Trees

a) Climbers:

  • These are plants which live for a short duration.
  • Their stems are weak; hence, they require support to climb and grow.

Examples: Cucumber, pea, etc.


b) Creepers:

  • These plants have weak stems and hence, cannot stand upright.
  • They creep along the ground. So, they are called creepers.

Examples: Money plant, grass, etc.


c) Herbs:

  • These are small plants with green stems.
  • They live for 3-4 months.
  • Many herbs are used as spices and medicines.

Examples: Mint, coriander, basil, oregano, etc.


d) Shrubs:

  • These are small plants with thick woody stems.
  • They live for around 6-12 months.
  • Their stem is strong; hence they grow taller during their lifetime

Examples: Rose, marigold, China rose, lemon, basil (tulsi), etc.


e) Trees:

  • A tree is a huge plant with a thick woody stem called a trunk
  • Trees live for many years.
  • Their branches and leaves grow to make a huge bushy structure called the crown

    Examples: Banyan, meem, mango, gulmohar, eucalyptus, coconut, etc.


Parts of a plant:

Like we have names for different parts of our body; similarly, plant parts have specific names and functions.

  • The body of a plant can be divided into two halves.
  • The upper half that is above the soil is called the shoot system.
  • The lower half that is below the soil is called the root system.

1) Root system:

  • It is the part of the plant that lies below the soil.
  • This plant part is not green.
  • The main function of the root is to absorb water and minerals from the soil, which the plant uses to prepare food.
  • Roots also hold the plant firmly to the soil.

2) Shoot system:

The shoot system of the plant can be further divided into the following parts—

  • Stem
  • Branches.
  • Leaf
  • Flower
  • Fruit

a) Stem:

  • It is the elongated green part of a plant.
  • The stem is the base to which all the plant parts are attached
  • Stem also provides the path for water and minerals to reach the different parts of a plant

b) Branches:

  • The branches of a plant arise from the stem.
  • Leaves grow on the stem.

c) Leaf:

  • It is the broad green part of the plant.
  • Leaves are green in colour due to the presence of a pigment called chlorophyll.
  • Leaves are the ‘kitchen of the plant’ and play an important role in the production of food.
  • Water and minerals from the roots reach the leaves, where it is converted into food in the presence of oxygen and chlorophyll.
  • Leaves have tiny pores on them, which are called stomata.

d) Flower:

  • Flowers are the colourful part of the plant.
  • Flowers are used for decorating our houses on various occasions
  • Flowers get converted into fruits when the plant matures.

e) Fruit:

  • Fruits are formed when the flower matures.
  • The fruits of some plants are edible
  • Examples: Mango, apple, orange, kiwi, etc.

  • Fruits contain seeds, and these seeds grow to form new plants.

f) Seeds:

  • Seeds contain tiny baby plants in them.
  • This baby plant comes out when the seed germinates and grows into a new plant.

New Words:

Chlorophyll: A green pigment found in different parts of the plant.

Germination: The growth of small shoots and roots from a seed.

Lifetime: The duration between the germination of a seed and the death of a plant.

Did You Know?

  • A banyan tree can live for 200-300 years.
  • Some roots like carrot, radish and beetroot are edible.
  • We eat seeds of wheat, rice and pulses.
  • The crown of a tree varies in shape according to the place they grow.
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