Studying a Map - Orchids

Time, Space and Direction

# Elements of a Map for Class 2 Science

The presentation of an area of Earth on a flat surface to show cities, countries, states, mountains, rivers, etc is called a map. Maps have been of great use for a long time.
The following concept will introduce the learners to the different elements of a map.

After reading the concept, students will be able to answer the following:

• What is a map?
• What is a political map?
• What is a physical map?
• What are cardinal directions?
• How to use a map key?

Each concept is explained to class 2 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.

## What is a Map?

• A map is a drawing used to study the surface of Earth on a flat area.
• It shows us rivers, mountains, roads, localities, rail tracks, roads, localities, markets, hospitals and many more.
• A map helps us to locate different countries, continents and places.
• Maps are of the following two typesâ€”

## a) What is a Political Map?

These maps help us to locate different continents, countries, cities and districts as it is marked to show their boundaries.

## b)What is a Physical Map?

These maps help us to locate mountain ranges, forests, rivers, oceans, deserts etc. They are not marked to differentiate areas, cities or places.

## Directions in a map:

Directions help us to locate different places on a map.

## a)What are Cardinal directions?

• There are four cardinal directions, and they are also called cardinal points.
• The four main cardinal directions are north, south, east and west.
• These directions are also denoted as N, S, E and W.

## b)What are Ordinal directions?

• There are four ordinal directions.
• The four ordinal directions are also known as intercardinal directions.
• The four ordinal directions are north-east, north-west, south-east and south-west.
• Each ordinal direction is present in between two cardinal directions.

## How the cardinal and ordinal directions are checked?

• We can check directions with the help of a compass.
• Every compass has a needle which shows the direction.
• All four cardinal directions are mentioned in the compass.
• When placed on a flat surface needle of a compass shows the north direction.
• Opposite north is south, west to the left of north and east to the right.
• Ordinal directions can be identified based on the position of cardinal directions.

## What is a Map Key?

• Keys are the symbols used on the map to depict a particular place or feature.
• Due to the keys, we can identify a variety of important areas in a locality.
• There are different types of keys. Some of them are as followsâ€”

## New Words:

Continents: A massive landmass is called a continent. The land on Earth is divided into seven continents.

Feature: A characteristic or trait.

Locality: An area or neighbourhood.

## Did You Know?

• The North and South poles of the Earth remain covered with snow throughout the year.
• In all compasses, the needle pointed to the north side is always red in colour.
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