Family and Shelter
Concept: Types of Houses
Houses can be divided into two categories—temporary houses and permanent houses.
- Temporary houses: These houses are not very strong because they are made of wood, straw, mud, and dry leaves. They get easily damaged in harsh weather conditions. Temporary houses are also called kutccha houses. Example: Hut, mud house.
- Permanent houses: These houses are extremely strong and do not get damaged easily, and remain safe for a long time. Permanent houses are made of bricks, cement, iron, and steel. They are also called pucca houses. Example: Bungalows, skyscrapers.
Houses in India:
- In India, different houses can be seen because of the variation in climate, rainfall, water availability, geography, etc.
- So, houses in places receiving heavy rainfall are very different from those built in desert areas.
So, let’s look at the houses that one can see in different regions of India.
Houses in places receiving heavy rainfall:
- The north-eastern part of India receives heavy rain and is also covered with dense forests.
- As bamboo is found in plenty in such areas, it is used to build houses.
- The houses are built with bamboo, mud, and cow dung.
- Some of the houses are single-storeyed, while some are multi-storied.
- The roofs are made slanting so that the rainwater does not collect over roofs and slide down.
- The houses located on the hill slopes are kept at a height by fixing them on wooden logs on the ground.
Houses in deserts:
- There are no dense forests in deserts, and the days are hot and the nights are cold.
- So, the villagers make their house walls thick by using a mixture of mud, cow dung, and grass. It keeps the house cool during the day and warm during the night.
- The roofs are made up of thorny bushes.
- Houses in the bigger towns are multi-storeyed.
Houses in snowy regions:
- Places high up in the mountains experience heavy snowfall during winter.
- Here, people use wooden logs, wood, stones, and mud to build houses.
- These houses have an upper attic and slanting roofs.
Houses on the water:
- People build houses that can move on water.
- In Kerala, these houses are called Kettuvallam. It is made of wood and ropes of coconut fibres.
- The roof is made of bamboo poles.
- The houseboats in Kashmir are called Shikara.
- The houseboats are tied and anchored at the banks of the lakes.
- Shikaras are used mainly for tourism and transporting goods.
Houses in big cities:
- A huge number of people reside in big cities.
- Such a large population needs multi-storeyed buildings and skyscrapers.
- Many people live in slums also, where small houses are made in very little space.
- Some people live in mansions, and some lives in row houses, bungalows, apartments, etc.
- Big buildings are equipped with elevators to reach the desired floor.
Other types of houses:
- Eskimos build igloos to protect themselves from the freezing climate.
- The snow blocks keep the house warm from cold winds.
- These are tents made with long wooden poles and animal skin to cover them.
- These are common on the plains of North America.
- Stilt houses:
- These are built over flooded waters with piles or stilts of wooden planks.
- Such elevated houses provide additional storage space.
- A caravan is a house set up in a covered vehicle that can be moved to different locations.
- Caravans are usually used when people go on holiday.
- Underground houses:
- These are houses made either entirely or partially beneath the surface of the soil.
- Such houses are common in Europe and Australia.
Single-storeyed and multi-storeyed house: A single-storeyed house has only one floor, whereas a multi-storeyed house has more than one floor.
Skyscraper: A very tall building with many floors, usually seen in cities.
Attic: An extra space or room inside the roof of a house.
Did You Know?
- Dugouts are underground homes found in some regions of southern Australia. People make such houses to keep themselves comfortable in scorching summers and harsh winters.
- Places that experience a hot climate usually have houses with big roofs to keep the sunlight out, whereas, in colder areas, the houses have thick walls to keep the house warm.