Prefixes and Suffixes
- A suffix is a word component that is placed at the end of the main word. Some of the popular suffixes include ing, ed, ish, es, able, est, etc.
- A suffix often changes a word into a new part of speech. For example, when a suffix is added to a noun, a verb, or adjective, it changes the word into a noun.
|Skip||-ing||Skipping||Double p is used.|
|Ease||-ed||Eased||e is omitted.|
|Easy||-ily||Easily||Y changes to I.|
|Life||-es||Lives||F is changed to v.|
- child (a noun) is changed to childish (an adjective).
- act (a verb) is changed to actor (a noun).
Types of Suffixes:
- Consonant Suffixes:These suffixes start with a consonant.
- ness – happiness
- less – careless
- ment – movement
- ful – peaceful
- Vowel Suffixes:These suffixes start with a vowel.
- ing - hopping
- es - leaves
- ed - raced
- ish - reddish
- age - package
- Rules for Consonant Suffixes:
- To the main word, directly add a consonant suffix.
Example:Truth + ful = truthful
- Change the ‘y’ to an ‘i’ before adding the suffix, if the main word ends in a single ‘y’.
- Rules for Vowel Suffixes:
dizzy + ness = dizziness
- Before adding a vowel suffix, check the main word. Add the vowel suffix if the main word ends in two consonants.
- Double the final consonant prior to adding the vowel suffix if the main word has a syllable, a vowel, and a final consonant.
- Omit the E before adding a vowel suffix. If the main word ends in a silent ‘e’, drop the ‘e’ before adding the vowel suffix.
- Keep the final ‘e’. There are some words where the final ‘e’ stays with a word when a suffix is added. When the main word ends in the letters ‘ge’ or ‘ce’, and the suffix begins with the letters ‘a’ or ‘o’, the final ‘e’ must be kept.
- Keep the ‘e’ at the end of the word if it ends in ‘ye’ or ‘ye’.
see + -ing = seeing
agree + -ing = agreeing
- Keep the ‘e’ if using the suffix -ly.
- For certain words ‘y’ must be kept at the end of a word when adding a suffix.
- Keep the ‘y’ if the suffix starts with the letter ‘i’. There cannot be two ‘i’s’ in a word.
Add + ing = Adding
Spin + ing = Spinning
Die + ed= Died
courage + -ous = courageous
change + -able = changeable
love + -ly = lovely
rare + -ly=rarely
enjoy + -ed = enjoyed
worry + -ing = worrying
carry + -ing = carrying
- If a suffix ‘ful’ is added to a word it will have only one L and not two.
- The doubling rule is not applicable to words that ends in ‘w’, ‘x’ or ‘y’.
- There are a few words with which the ‘e’ has to be kept even if a vowel suffix is added. These words need to be memorized as they are exceptions.
- Exceptions for ‘y’ to ‘i' rule. The letters ‘y’ do not change to ‘i’ instead ‘y’ is kept when the new word is formed.
|Main Word||with suffix -ed||with suffix -ing|
like + -able = likeable
size + -able = sizeable
boy + -hood = boyhood