Use above, below, over and under | Grade 4 English Learning Concepts
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Prepositions

Concept: Use of above, below, over and under

Definition:

  • A preposition is a word that demonstrates the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in the sentence.
  • It is used to show position, direction or time. A preposition usually comes before a noun or pronoun.

Usage of ‘above’:

  1. The word ‘above’ is used while mentioning something is higher than another thing or the movement is at a single place only.
  2. In the example, the birds are moving, but they are in the same place as the movement is in circles.
  3. Example:

    I saw an eagle flying in circles above the roof.

  4. Use ‘above’ when the object is not directly over an object.
  5. Example:

    The jar is kept above the bills on the table.

    Nature-1
  6. It is also used to refer to something greater in amount.
  7. Example:

    Today’s temperature is above normal.

  8. To mention something that is already written before the statement in the text.
  9. Examples:

    1. Nature-1

      Answer the questions after reading the passage above.

    2. Birthday Celebration Venue: At the school hall

      The function will be held at the venue mentioned above.

Usage of ‘Under’:

  1. The word ‘under’ is used when something is lower to another object.
  2. Use under when one object is covered by another object.
  3. Example:

    There is a cat hiding under the table.

    Nature-1
  4. The word ‘under’ is also used to mention a range of either age or a number.
  5. Examples:

    1. Suresh has been selected for the under 18 state cricket team.
    2. The total amount spent is under Rs. 2000.
  6. When something is managed or supervised by someone.
  7. Examples:

    1. There will be ten students under the care of our class teacher next year.
    2. Under his captaincy, the team has performed well.
  8. While explaining the state of something, the word ‘under’ is used.
  9. Example:

    The flyover is under construction.

Usage of ‘Below’:

  1. The word ‘below’ is used when a thing is lower than another thing or when the two things are not directly in contact with each other.
  2. The word ‘below’ is used when something is at the lowest position than another thing.
  3. Example:

    He has an injury below his left eye.

  4. Use below when one object is in a lesser position than the other object.
  5. Example:

    They live in the apartment below ours.

  6. To describe anything written in the lower part of the writing.
  7. Examples:

  8. After reading the passage, answer the questions given below.
  9. Nature-1
  10. For further details, contact the number below.
  11. Phone number: XXXX XXXX
  12. The word is also used to mention something less than a specific number.
  13. Examples:

    1. He scored below average marks.
    2. The temperature is below normal.

Usage of ‘Over’:

  1. When something is directed up to another thing or person, the word ‘over’ is used.
  2. To move from one place to another place ‘over’ is used.
  3. Examples:

    1. The flock of birds flew over the lake.
    2. Nature-1
    3. They ran over the bridge to reach home quickly.
  4. To refer to a downward or an upward movement.
  5. Examples:

    1. The huge mango tree fell over the road.
    2. He bent over and got the pen for me.
  6. It is also used to talk about more than an expected number or time.
  7. Examples:

    1. The doorbell rang for over a minute.
    2. There were over 500 guests at the wedding reception.
  8. To indicate time also, the word ‘over’ is used. This could mean that an action took place continuously during a period of time. In the first examples given below, you will see Raj did not go out for a duration of more than one month. In the second example, Sam worked abroad for more than two years. It could be possible that she went abroad multiple times during this time.
  9. Examples:

    1. Raj did not go out for over a month.
    2. Sam worked abroad for over two years.

Difference Between ‘under’ and ‘below’:

Nature-1

Difference Between ‘above’ and ‘over’

Nature-1

Common Mistakes

  1. Confusion in the usage of above and over.
  2. Examples:

    1. The waves came up above us.
    2. Nature-1
    3. Once the flight flew over the clouds, he felt relieved.
    4. Nature-1
      Use above, but not over, for things that are at a higher level.
  3. Above is used when there is no direct contact between the things mentioned.
  4. Example:

    They made the dog comfortable and put a thick blanket over it.

    They made the dog comfortable and put a thick blanket above it.

  5. Confusion in the usage of under and below. The word ‘below’ is not used when one thing touches or hides or covers something; instead, the word under is used.
  6. Example:

    She wore an amazing white shirt under the red coat.

    She wore an amazing white shirt below the red coat.

    Nature-1
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