Hygiene and Safety
Concept: Safety and First Aid
What is safety?
- Accidents can happen anywhere anytime and so we need to follow certain rules that would keep us safe.
- Safety can be defined as a condition of being protected from any danger, accident or injury.
- The safety rules are different for different places we go to in our daily lives.
Safety at home:
- Though our house is the most comfortable place, we are still prone to accidents and injuries if we are not careful.
- The safety rules we must follow in our homes are mentioned below
- Do not use sharp objects like nails, blades, nail cutters, knives etc. in the absence of an adult. They may lead to deep cuts.
- Do not walk on wet floors. You may fall and injure or fracture yourself.
- Do not touch electric sockets with wet hands. It may give you an electric shock.
- One should wear slippers while working with any electrical appliance. Children should not use any electrical appliance when the elders are not around.
- Never play with matchsticks and crackers in the absence of elders.
- Stay out of the kitchen. Do not use the stove, oven, or OTG when the elders of the family are not around.
- Keep all emergency contact details handy if required.
Safety at schools:
- After our home, we spend most of our day at school.
- Let us see the safety rules at school—
- Do not stand on a desk. You may fall and get injured.
- Never indulge in a fight.
- Walk carefully down the staircase. Slipping on the stairs may lead to serious injury.
- Never run in the corridor. You may slip and hurt others while running
- Stand in the queue while boarding or waiting for your school bus. Do not push others in the queue.
- Do not throw chalk, pencils, erasers etc. They may hit others on their eyes or nose and cause injuries.
Safety on roads:
- We use the roads for going to different places.
- Let us see the safety rules for roads—
- Never walk alone on the streets.
- Use a footpath while walking. Do not walk in the middle of the road.
- Use a zebra crossing for crossing the road.
- Follow the traffic lights and signals.
- Wear the seat belt while travelling in a car. Do not put your head, hands or legs outside the window while travelling.
- Do not play or run on the road.
- Never touch an electric pole on the road.
Traffic lights and signs:
Traffic signs are the signs which are placed on the sides of the road to provide information to people travelling on road. Some of the traffic signs are given below—
|Turn Left||Turn Right||School Ahead|
|No Entry||No Horn||Cycling not allowed|
- Three different traffic lights are used to convey the appropriate signals for controlling traffic on roads.
- The red light indicates stop, the green light indicates go and the yellow light indicates to be ready.
Safety on playgrounds and parks:
- We go to playgrounds and parks for playing and spending time with our friends and family.
- Let us see the safety rules to be followed there—
- Do not play roughly. You may hurt yourself or somebody else around you.
- Be careful while playing on swings. Wait for your turn and do not push anyone.
- Do not throw stones or any other hard objects here and there
- Wear a helmet and knee caps when required like when you are skating or cycling
- Do not talk to strangers or accept things or eatables from them.
- Do not go near unidentified objects or luggage.
- The immediate help provided at the time of an injury or illness is called first aid
- First aid stabilises a person in need before the proper medical facilities arrive and prevents the probability of further damage.
Let us see some first aid instructions to be followed in different situations—
- Cool the burnt area using cold water and cover it loosely with a cotton cloth.
- Apply Burnol if available.
b) Cuts and wounds
- Clean the wound using soap and water or with an antiseptic like Dettol.
- Cover the wound with a clean bandage.
c) Nose bleed:
- Make the person sit upright and ask them to lean forward.
- Pinch the nose using your thumb and index finger and ask them to breathe with their mouth
- They should not blow their nose for some time.
d) Head injury:
- Make the injured person lie down and apply an ice pack.
First Aid Box:
- The first aid box comprises the things which can be used to provide immediate help in case of an injury.
- It contains the following things—
- Thermometer that is used to measure the temperature of an individual.
- Clean cotton and bandage.
- Antiseptic solution that is used to clean a wound.
- Antiseptic ointment that can be applied to the wound, such as Soframycin.
- Some basic medicines for fever, cold, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Antibiotic/Antiseptic: The medicines that prevent the growth of infection-causing germs.
Zebra crossing: An area of road painted with broad white stripes, where vehicles stop when the traffic light turns red.
Electrical appliance: A device that works on electricity.
Did You Know?
CPR stands for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. It is a life-saving technique that can be used in case of heart attack and breathing problems. It consists of the following steps—
- Make the person lie on his/ her back on a flat surface.
- Check for their breath.
- Make a fist with your palm and place it in the centre of the chest of the person.
- Push hard and fast about at the rate of 2 pushes per second. Do it 30 times and try giving rescue breaths through the mouth twice
- Repeat this cycle.
- Remember the need for CPR denotes an utter medical emergency therefore before it is started one needs to call for medical help.