Grade 3 Maths Multiplications | Learning Concepts
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Operations

Multiplication

Multiplication is a primary operation and it is used to find the product of two or more numbers.

  • The symbol which is used to denote multiplication is ‘X’.
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Multiplication as repeated addition

The multiplication of two numbers can be represented as repeated addition.

Example:

  1. Multiplication of 3 by 4 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 × 4 =12
  2. Multiplication of 7 by 5 = 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 = 7 × 5 = 35

Multiplication on Number Line

We can do multiplication using a number line.

Example:

  1. 3 × 4
  2. 6 × 3

Answer:

  1. To multiply 3 by 4, we need to take four jumps of 3 in the right direction.
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    So,
    3 × 4 = 12

  3. To multiply 6 by 3, we need to take three jumps of 6 in the right direction.
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    6 × 3 = 18

Multiplication Table up to 15

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Multiplication of 2-digit numbers with a single digit number

Multiplication of a 2-digit number with a single digit number can be categorise as:

  1. Without regrouping
  2. With regrouping

Example:

Find the product.

  1. 42 × 2
  2. 56 × 2

Answer:

  1. 42 × 2
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    Hence, 42 × 2 = 84

  2. 26 × 3
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    Hence, 26 × 3 = 78

Multiplication of 2-digit numbers with 2-digit numbers

Example:

Find the product.

  1. 33 × 11
  2. 56 × 12

Answer:

  1. 33 × 11

    Step 1

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    Step 2

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    Step 3

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    Hence, 33 × 11 = 363

  2. 56 × 12

    Step 1

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    Step 2

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    Step 3

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    Hence, 56 × 12 = 672

Alternative Method

In this method, we split the numbers in tens and ones and then use a grid to multiply.

Example:

Find the product.

  1. 65 × 23
  2. 74 × 17

Answer:

  1. 65 × 23 = (60 + 5) × (20 + 3)
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    Hence, 65 × 23 = 1495

  2. 74 × 17 = (70 + 4) × (10 + 7)
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    Hence, 74 × 17 = 1258

Word Problems

Example:

  1. Ram has 4 mango trees in his garden. Each tree has 35 mangoes. How many mangoes are there in the garden?
  2. Danish has 45 pens. He sold all of his pens for Rs 8 each. How much he earned after selling all of his pens?

Answer:

  1. Each tree has 35 mangoes.
    Then the total number of mangoes is
    35 × 4 = 140
    Hence, the total number of mangoes in his garden is
    140.
  2. Price of each pen is Rs 8.
    The total price of 45 pens is
    45 × Rs 8 = Rs 360
    Hence, the total money he gets from selling his pens is
    Rs 360.
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