**Operations on Numbers**

**Multiplication for Class 3**

Here the student will recall the properties of multiplication and learn about 2-digit by 1-digit multiplication and 2-digit by 2-digit multiplication. The 1 to 15 multiplication table is explained briefly to the students. The multiplication with regrouping and the multiplication without regrouping are explained with examples, and word problems related to multiplication are discussed with real-life examples.

The student will learn to

- Find the multiplication of two numbers using repeated addition
- Define multiplication in number line
- Deduce Multiplication with regrouping and without regrouping
- Applying multiplication in real life by solving word problems.

The learning concept has been explained to multiplication for class 3 students with examples, illustrations, and a concept map. At the end of the page, two printable multiplication worksheets for class 3 with solutions are attached for the students.

Download the worksheets and solutions to assess our knowledge of the concept.

Multiplication is a primary operation and it is used to find the product of two or more numbers.

- The symbol which is used to denote multiplication is ‘X’.

**Multiplication As Repeated Addition**

The multiplication of two numbers can be represented as **repeated addition**.

Example:

- Multiplication of 3 by 4 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 × 4 =12
- Multiplication of 7 by 5 = 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 = 7 × 5 = 35

**How to Do Multiplication on Number Line**

We can do multiplication using a number line.

Example:

- 3 × 4
- 6 × 3

**Answer:**

- To multiply 3 by 4, we need to take four jumps of 3 in the right direction.
- To multiply 6 by 3, we need to take three jumps of 6 in the right direction.
6 × 3 = 18

So,

3 × 4 = 12

**1 to 15 Multiplication Table**

**2-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication**

Multiplication of a 2-digit number with a single digit number can be categorise as:

- Without regrouping
- With regrouping

Example:

Find the product.

- 42 × 2
- 56 × 2

**Answer:**

- 42 × 2
Hence, 42 × 2 = 84

- 26 × 3
Hence, 26 × 3 = 78

**2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication**

Example:

Find the product.

- 33 × 11
- 56 × 12

**Answer:**

- 33 × 11
**Step 1****Step 2****Step 3**Hence, 33 × 11 = 363

- 56 × 12
**Step 1****Step 2****Step 3**Hence, 56 × 12 = 672

Alternative Method

In this method, we split the numbers in tens and ones and then use a grid to multiply.

Example:

Find the product.

- 65 × 23
- 74 × 17

**Answer:**

- 65 × 23 = (60 + 5) × (20 + 3)
Hence, 65 × 23 = 1495

- 74 × 17 = (70 + 4) × (10 + 7)
Hence, 74 × 17 = 1258

**Multiplication Word Problems**

Example:

- Ram has 4 mango trees in his garden. Each tree has 35 mangoes. How many mangoes are there in the garden?
- Danish has 45 pens. He sold all of his pens for Rs 8 each. How much he earned after selling all of his pens?

**Answer:**

- Each tree has 35 mangoes.

Then the total number of mangoes is

35 × 4 = 140

Hence, the total number of mangoes in his garden is

140. - Price of each pen is Rs 8.

The total price of 45 pens is

45 × Rs 8 = Rs 360

Hence, the total money he gets from selling his pens is

Rs 360.