All about Plants: Their Parts, Types and Habitats | Nature Around Us
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Nature Around Us

Concept : All About Plants

Plants are living organisms that make their food and provide oxygen to humans and animals.

  • Since plants make their food, they are called autotrophs, while the others dependent on plants for food are called heterotrophs.
  • Plans need water, air, soil, and sunlight to survive. Plants can be of different sizes and shapes.
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Types of Plants:

Based on the size and shape, plants can be classified as follows—

1.Tree: Tall plants with firm and strong trunks. They live for many years. Example: Banyan tree, mango tree, palm tree.

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2.Twiner/Climber: Plants with weak trunks that twine themselves around any support. Example: Grapes.


3.Shrub: Plants with soft trunks and short branches, are of low height and stay near the ground.
Example: Rose plant.

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4.Herb: These plants have soft and delicate stems that are green in colour. They grow up to a short height and only live for one or two seasons.
Example: Basil plant.

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5.Grass: Very flexible plants with green stems, and the leaves are long and narrow. They have a very short lifespan.
Example: Bamboo.

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Habitats of Plants:

  1. Some plants grow entirely on land.
    Examples: Guava, papaya, neem, etc.
  2. Some plants grow in water and float on the surface.
    Examples:
    Water lily, lotus, etc.
  3. Some plants grow below the surface of the water.
    Examples: Waterweed

Neem Tree

Water Lilly

Waterweed

Leaves of Plants:

Leaves are the food manufacturing units of a plant. We see many plants around us with different kinds of leaves. Some are long, slender, thin, and flexible (grass); some are broad, thick, and rough with varying shades of green (peepal, fig), and some are of completely different colours (ornamental plants).

  • The amla plant has very small leaves, while the leaves of a banana tree are huge. The leaves of apple and cherry trees have grooves in the leaf margin.
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  • The lines visible on a leaf’s surface are called veins. The leaf's surface is called the leaf blade, and the border is called the leaf margin.
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  • Some plants can be identified by crushing the leaves and smelling them. When crushed, a particular aroma comes out of it. Examples: Leaves of the lemon tree, tulsi, neem, nilgiri, etc.
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Tulsi leaves Neem leaves Nilgiri leaves Lemon leaves

Trunk:

The trunk of a tree connects the leaves and branches with the roots.

  • The trunks of plants are called stems, and young stems are green in colour.
  • As the stem becomes older, it becomes hard and brown/black in colour.
  • The tree gets support above the soil due to the trunk.
  • The main function of the trunk is to supply water and nutrients coming up from the roots to the different parts of the tree.
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Roots:

Roots grow downwards into the soil and give underground support to the tree.

  • The roots divide into branches that help absorb water and minerals from the soil.
  • Grasses have very soft and small roots, whereas roots of trees like banyan go deep into the soil and spread across a huge area.
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New Words:

  1. Autotrophs: Those who can make their food using sunlight, water, and other ingredients. Example: Green plants.
  2. Heterototrophs: Those who cannot make their food and
  3. depend on plants for their food. Example: Man, animals, birds.

Did You Know?

There is a plant named Touch-Me-Not, which folds its leaves quickly if someone touches it.

The Great Banyan Tree in the Botanical Garden of Kolkata is around 250 years old and covers 4.67 acres of land.


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