Seasons Summer and Winter Science Grade 3 | Orchids
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Weather and Seasons

Concept: Summer and Winter

  • We experience different seasons round the year due to the movement of Earth around the Sun, which is called revolution.
  • Each season shows a different climate.
  • A year is divided mainly into four seasons—winter, summer, spring, and monsoon.
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Changes in the seasons:

  • The Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.
  • The seasons vary based on the positions of the Earth and the Sun.
  • Seasons are different in different regions of the Earth based on whether they are towards or away from the Sun.
  • Due to the tilt of the Earth, the sunlight falling on different parts of the Earth varies. Some places receive more while others receive less.

Summer

  • The summer season is the hottest of all four seasons.
  • It starts in March and ends in July.
  • We are closest to the Sun in this season.
  • The summer is marked by longer days and shorter nights.
  • The weather in summer is hot and humid. There is a considerable difference in temperature during the day and night. Both days and nights are hot.
  • During the summer, a hot and dry wind called loo blows over some parts of northern India. Exposure to such winds often causes heatstroke.
  • Some states of India face acute water shortages during the summer season.
  • The seasonal rivers dry in summers, whereas the perennial rivers like the Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Yamuna have water throughout the year.
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Delicacies of summers:

  • Different kinds of melons, cucumbers, gourds, mango, papaya, pumpkin, jackfruits, cashew, litchi, blackberry, and palm fruit are available during the summer.
  • Brinjal, okra, white onion, spinach, and cowpeas are some vegetables grown in the summers.
  • Regional crops grown in summers are cotton, groundnut, maize, and rice.
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Clothing in summers:

  • The summer season witnesses a hot and humid climate, so, white cotton clothes are best during these days.
  • Hats, caps, and umbrellas are used to avoid the Sun’s heat.
  • Loose cotton clothes help remain ventilated during high temperatures.
  • Traditional turbans are also worn in different regions of our country.
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Festivities in the summer:

The summer season is marked by different festivals across India. Some of them are mentioned below—

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Festival State
Gangaur Rajasthan
Baisakhi Punjab
Chithirai Tamil Nadu
Moatsu Nagaland
Bhumchu Sikkim

Winter:

  • It is the coldest season out of all the four seasons.
  • Winter starts in November and lasts till February.
  • The Earth is at the farthest distance from the Sun during winters.
  • Mountain regions experience snowfalls, and plains are filled with fog due to extremely low temperatures.
  • The days are shorter, and the nights are longer during winters.
  • Cold and dry breezes are experienced during this season.
  • Temperatures drop drastically during the winter nights. Morning is cold and foggy and the temperature is pleasant in the afternoons.
  • Snow blizzards occur in places like Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, and Himachal Pradesh. Drass region in Kargil, Ladakh, has recorded the lowest temperature of -60ºC.
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Delicacies of winters:

  • Apple, strawberries, orange, guava, pineapple, pomegranate, grapes, Indian gooseberry, figs, and chiku are some fruits available in winter.
  • Different vegetables like peas, cauliflower, carrots, mustard, fenugreek leaves, spinach, radish, spring onion, etc., are harvested in the winter.
  • Some famous dishes enjoyed in winter are til laddoo, makki ki roti, sarso ka saag, muthiya, etc.
  • Regional crops grown in winter are wheat, barley, mustard, gram, and peas.
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Clothing in winters:

  • Woollen clothes are worn in north India during winters. Southern India does not experience extremely low temperatures; hence, normal clothing is enough.
  • Shawls, mufflers, and scarves are used to prevent extreme cold.
  • Gloves, mittens, and caps are also frequently used.
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Festivities in the winters:

  • Many traditional festivals related to the harvest season are celebrated in winter.
  • Example: Lohri, Magh Bihu, Makar Sankranti, Pongal, etc.

  • Christmas is celebrated worldwide with great zeal and enthusiasm during winters.
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New Words:

Weather: These are the atmospheric conditions of a region at a specific time and place.

Climate: The weather conditions of an area for a prolonged period; the long-term weather pattern of a region.

Humid: High amount of water vapour in the air, which makes the surroundings moist.

Heatstroke: A condition caused by the overheating of our body, usually due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

Seasonal and perennial rivers: Rivers that flow only in rainy seasons and remain dry mostly are called seasonal rivers. Rivers in which the water flows throughout the year are called perennial rivers.

Blizzard: An intense and prolonged snowstorm is called a blizzard.


Did You Know?

  • The longest day on the Earth is 21st June (Summer solstice)
  • The shortest day of the Earth is 22nd December (Winter solstice)
  • Many villagers/tribal people practice drying vegetables during summer so those can be used in winter.
  • Animals found in very cold regions go for a long winter sleep called hibernation. In that period, they are not in an active state and can survive without food or water.
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