Weather and Seasons
Concept: Summer and Winter
- We experience different seasons round the year due to the movement of Earth around the Sun, which is called revolution.
- Each season shows a different climate.
- A year is divided mainly into four seasons—winter, summer, spring, and monsoon.
Changes in the seasons:
- The Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.
- The seasons vary based on the positions of the Earth and the Sun.
- Seasons are different in different regions of the Earth based on whether they are towards or away from the Sun.
- Due to the tilt of the Earth, the sunlight falling on different parts of the Earth varies. Some places receive more while others receive less.
- The summer season is the hottest of all four seasons.
- It starts in March and ends in July.
- We are closest to the Sun in this season.
- The summer is marked by longer days and shorter nights.
- The weather in summer is hot and humid. There is a considerable difference in temperature during the day and night. Both days and nights are hot.
- During the summer, a hot and dry wind called loo blows over some parts of northern India. Exposure to such winds often causes heatstroke.
- Some states of India face acute water shortages during the summer season.
- The seasonal rivers dry in summers, whereas the perennial rivers like the Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Yamuna have water throughout the year.
Delicacies of summers:
- Different kinds of melons, cucumbers, gourds, mango, papaya, pumpkin, jackfruits, cashew, litchi, blackberry, and palm fruit are available during the summer.
- Brinjal, okra, white onion, spinach, and cowpeas are some vegetables grown in the summers.
- Regional crops grown in summers are cotton, groundnut, maize, and rice.
Clothing in summers:
- The summer season witnesses a hot and humid climate, so, white cotton clothes are best during these days.
- Hats, caps, and umbrellas are used to avoid the Sun’s heat.
- Loose cotton clothes help remain ventilated during high temperatures.
- Traditional turbans are also worn in different regions of our country.
Festivities in the summer:
The summer season is marked by different festivals across India. Some of them are mentioned below—
- It is the coldest season out of all the four seasons.
- Winter starts in November and lasts till February.
- The Earth is at the farthest distance from the Sun during winters.
- Mountain regions experience snowfalls, and plains are filled with fog due to extremely low temperatures.
- The days are shorter, and the nights are longer during winters.
- Cold and dry breezes are experienced during this season.
- Temperatures drop drastically during the winter nights. Morning is cold and foggy and the temperature is pleasant in the afternoons.
- Snow blizzards occur in places like Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, and Himachal Pradesh. Drass region in Kargil, Ladakh, has recorded the lowest temperature of -60ºC.
Delicacies of winters:
- Apple, strawberries, orange, guava, pineapple, pomegranate, grapes, Indian gooseberry, figs, and chiku are some fruits available in winter.
- Different vegetables like peas, cauliflower, carrots, mustard, fenugreek leaves, spinach, radish, spring onion, etc., are harvested in the winter.
- Some famous dishes enjoyed in winter are til laddoo, makki ki roti, sarso ka saag, muthiya, etc.
- Regional crops grown in winter are wheat, barley, mustard, gram, and peas.
Clothing in winters:
- Woollen clothes are worn in north India during winters. Southern India does not experience extremely low temperatures; hence, normal clothing is enough.
- Shawls, mufflers, and scarves are used to prevent extreme cold.
- Gloves, mittens, and caps are also frequently used.
Festivities in the winters:
- Many traditional festivals related to the harvest season are celebrated in winter.
- Christmas is celebrated worldwide with great zeal and enthusiasm during winters.
Example: Lohri, Magh Bihu, Makar Sankranti, Pongal, etc.
Weather: These are the atmospheric conditions of a region at a specific time and place.
Climate: The weather conditions of an area for a prolonged period; the long-term weather pattern of a region.
Humid: High amount of water vapour in the air, which makes the surroundings moist.
Heatstroke: A condition caused by the overheating of our body, usually due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures.
Seasonal and perennial rivers: Rivers that flow only in rainy seasons and remain dry mostly are called seasonal rivers. Rivers in which the water flows throughout the year are called perennial rivers.
Blizzard: An intense and prolonged snowstorm is called a blizzard.
Did You Know?
- The longest day on the Earth is 21st June (Summer solstice)
- The shortest day of the Earth is 22nd December (Winter solstice)
- Many villagers/tribal people practice drying vegetables during summer so those can be used in winter.
- Animals found in very cold regions go for a long winter sleep called hibernation. In that period, they are not in an active state and can survive without food or water.