Indian Handlooms for Class 4 EVS
In India, we can see different types of handloom fabrics. Variety of looms and weaves are used for making many fabrics such as chanderi fabric, Kalamkari sarees, Muga silk and many more. In this concept, the young learners will understand in detail about the Indian handloom.
After reading the concept, students will be able to:
- Identify different types of fabrics in India.
- Remember the process of making clothes from yarn.
- Discuss the states of origin of fabrics such as Kanjeevaram silk saree, Baluchari silk saree, etc.
- Describe what patan patola is famous for.
Each concept is explained to class 4 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.
Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept Indian Handlooms provided in PDF format.
- The weaving industry in India dates back to the Indus valley civilization, when people started growing cotton and were skilled in how to make fabric with that.
- India is a diverse country with a variety of weavers who produce different types of fabric.
- In ancient India, weavers learnt about silk manufacturing from China.
How is yarn transformed into a cloth?
Handloom Industry in India:
- The handloom industry is the most diversified in our country.
- A handloom is a device that weaves fabric manually without electricity. It takes a lot of labour and time to weave these fabrics.
- India produces some of the finest handlooms that are shown in the following map—
The different and unique handlooms of India are briefly described below—
1. Kanjeevaram Silk Saree-
- State of origin: Tamil Nadu.
- It is one of the most expensive handwoven silk fabrics.
- The fabric got its name from the city of Kanchipuram, where it is made.
- The fabric is lustrous and has elaborated zari work.
- The expensive sarees have designs made with gold threads.
2. Chanderi Fabric:
- State of origin: Madhya Pradesh.
- It is a traditional saree mentioned in many Hindu mythological books.
- Chanderi fabrics are of three types— made with silk, cotton, and silk and cotton.
- Due to its light and sheer texture it is also called ‘woven air’.
3. Muga Silk:
- State of origin: Assam.
- The Muga silk is made only in Assam and is known as the ‘golden fibre’.
- This silk has a very fine texture with high durability, and the colour of this silk is naturally yellow.
- This fabric is washable, and with each wash, the lustre of the fabric increases.
- Mekhela-chador, the traditional attire of Assamese women, is made with Muga silk.
- State of origin: Gujarat.
- It is a tie and dye type of textile found in bright colours like yellow, red, blue, black, etc.
- This fabric is made by the local Khatri community of Gujarat.
- A distinguishable feature of this fabric is its light-coloured dots in various patterns and designs.
5. Kosa Silk:
- State of origin: Chattisgarh.
- Desi Tussar silk sarees are called by the Sanskrit name Kosa silk sarees.
- Kosa silk is more durable than pure silk and is obtained from specific breeds of silkworm whose cocoons are found in Sal and Arjun trees.
- A single saree takes five days to complete.
- Champa and Korba in Chattisgarh produce the maximum quantity of Kosa silk.
6. Baluchari Silk Saree:
- State of origin: West Bengal.
- It is made of tussar silk and is primarily made in the Murshidabad and Bishnupur districts of West Bengal.
- Mythological scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata are depicted on such sarees.
- Using jacquard looms, a saree takes at least five to six days to complete.
7. Kalamkari Sarees:
- State of origin: Andhra Pradesh.
- It is a hand-painted or block-printed cotton-based textile.
- The designs of the kalamkari fabric are done with vegetable colours.
- Wooden stamps are also used to make the designs.
- In this era, digital machines are used to print kalamkari fabrics.
8. Paithani Silk Saree:
- State of origin: Maharashtra.
- It is a type of handwoven silk saree worn by the Maratha royals.
- The pallus of Paithani sarees have peacocks, parrot, or flower motifs.
- Due to its weaving pattern, a Paithani saree looks exactly the same on both sides.
- This saree is an integral part of Maharashtrian culture.
9. Banarasi Silk Saree:
- State of origin: Uttar Pradesh.
- These sarees are pretty heavy and made with silk fabrics.
- They are designed with intricate patterns of zari or silver brocade.
- Kalga, bel, and upright leafy motifs are used to design these sarees.
- As per designs, these sarees take twenty days to six months to complete.
- The fabrics are gorgeous and used for weddings and other grand functions.
10. Patan Patola:
- State of origin: Gujarat.
- These are silk-made double-woven sarees.
- Patola is an expensive saree, and the weaving process of this fabric takes a long time.
- These sarees are famous for their intricate and complex geometrical style.
11. Bomkai Saree:
- State of origin: Odisha.
- It is also known as the Sonepuri saree.
- These sarees are made of cotton or silk and are famous for their thread work and pallu.
- Temple, tortoise, and lotus motifs are used to design these sarees.
12. Pochampally Saree:
- State of origin: Telangana.
- These sarees can be made with cotton, silk, or a blend of cotton and silk.
- Pochampally fabric is a type of double ikat textile.
- Colours are used from natural sources and their mixtures.
Loom: A loom is a machine to weave fabrics from threads.
Motif: A figure or decorative image used repeatedly to design fabrics.
Pallu: It is the loose end of a saree worn over one shoulder.
Ikat: It is a type of fabric that is woven from a tied and dyed yarn.
Did You Know?
- Jamdani fabric is originally from Bangladesh but is also made in West Bengal. Traditional jamdani fabrics used to be made with muslins.
- Chikan Kari and Phulkari are types of embroidery designs from Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Phulkari is done with flower motif stitches on light-coloured fabrics. Chikan Kari is done with chikan stitches.
- Shisha is a type of embroidery work with designer glass pieces. This artwork was brought to India by the Mughals. Shisha toranas are hung over the entrances of homes to ward off evil.