Types of Crops and Tools of Agriculture| EVS Grade 4 | ORCHIDS
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Types of Crops and Tools of Agriculture for Class 4 EVS

This concept mainly deals with different types of crops and agriculture tools that are used for crop production. Through this concept, the students will be introduced to varieties of crops like coconut, jute, cotton, rubber, maize, rice, and wheat.

After reading the concept, students will be able to:

  • Understand how the export of crops helps us to generate revenues from foreign countries.
  • Differentiate between food crops and cash crops.
  • Know how plantation crops are grown.
  • Get an idea about oilseed crops, beverage crops, and fibre crops.
  • Analyse a few traditional tools and modern tools of agriculture like seed drill, spade, hoe etc.

Each concept is explained to class 4 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.

Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept of Types of Crops and Tools of Agriculture provided in PDF format.

What is a Crop?

  • A crop is a plant that is cultivated on a large scale by farmers to earn money.
    Examples: Rice, wheat, maize, rubber, coconut, jute, cotton, and many more.
  • Crops are cultivated for food and other products like cotton, jute, rubber, etc.
  • India is heavily dependent on agriculture as the soil and weather conditions are favourable for the cultivation of various crops.
  • In the case of some crops (like rice, wheat, sugarcane, jute, and pulses), India is one of the leading producers and exports the surplus produce to foreign countries in exchange for money.

Classification of Crops:

Crops can be categorised into two main groups per their usage—food crops and cash crops.

Classification of Crops

1. Food Crops:

These crops are grown to feed the human population.

Some food crops that are grown in India are briefly described below—

Rice is the staple food of India and is mainly consumed by all. For the cultivation of rice, sufficient humidity, heavy rainfall, and high temperature are required.
Wheat is the staple food of the northern and western regions of India. This crop requires a cool climate with moderate rainfall.
Maize grows well in areas where there are alternate spells of rain and sunny conditions. It is used as a food grain for human consumption as well as fodder for livestock.
In India, millets consist of ragi, jowar, and bajra. These are highly nutritious crops and have coarse grains. These crops grow well in arid and semi-arid regions.
The most common pulses grown in India are tur, urad, moong, masur, peas, and gram. These crops are grown in areas receiving less rainfall.

2. Cash Crops:

Cash crops are those that are grown for the purpose of sale and earning profit.
Examples:Mustard, cotton, jute, tea, etc.

Cash crops can be further classified into the following types—

a) Oilseed Crops: Oilseed crops are those which are cultivated exclusively for the edible cooking oil they produce.

Some oil crops that are grown in India are briefly described below—

  • It is cultivated in the central and southern parts of India during winter.
  • A long warm climate is suitable for growing groundnut.
  • Groundnut oil is used for cooking, whereas groundnuts are also eaten.
  • Mustard is cultivated in the northern, western, and central parts of India.
  • It grows well in dry and cool climates.
  • Mustard oil is used for cooking and frying.
  • Mustard powder and whole mustard seeds are used as flavouring agents in Indian cuisine.
  • Mustard leaves, too, are eaten as they are a good source of nutrients.
  • Sunflower is grown in the southern states of India, along with Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
  • It requires direct sunlight and long spells of a hot climate.
  • Sunflower oil is extracted from the seeds, and the leaves are used as fodder.

b) Plantation Crops: These crops are grown for commercial purposes on a large plantation that is owned by an individual or a company.

Some plantation crops that are grown in India are briefly described below—

  • Coconut is cultivated in the coastal areas of the country.
  • It thrives best in a tropical climate with high rainfall.
  • The flesh of coconut fruit is edible and the oil extracted from it has many uses.
  • Cocoa is cultivated in the states of south India.
  • It requires high rainfall and temperatures.
  • Cocoa beans are used to make chocolates.
  • Rubber is mostly cultivated in the southern regions of India.
  • It grows well in humid areas and requires plenty of rainfall.
  • The latex from rubber trees is used to make tyres, balloons, etc.

c) Beverage Crops: Crops that produce beverages fit for human consumption are called beverage crops.

Some beverage crops that are grown in India are briefly described below—

  • Tea is a major beverage crop in India that is exported for profit.
  • It is grown in the hilly regions of India, especially in the north-eastern part of the country.
  • Tea requires well-drained soil and sufficient rainfall.
  • Tea is consumed worldwide as a refreshment and also has medicinal values.
  • Coffee is grown in the southern states of India.
  • This crop requires abundant rainfall, sunlight and humidity.
  • Coffee is a popular beverage all over the world and is also used in different desserts.

d) Fibre Crops: These crops are extensively cultivated for their fibres.

Some fibre crops that are grown in India are briefly described below—

  • Jute is a fibre crop grown in West Bengal, Assam and Bihar.
  • Jute fibres are used to make sacks, bags and wrappings.
  • Jute is a great alternative to plastic because it is environment-friendly.
  • Cotton is grown in the western and southern parts of the country.
  • It grows well in black soil in the presence of plenty of sunshine and humidity.
  • Cotton fabric is made from cotton fibres.

Based on harvesting seasons, crops are categorised into two main groups—

1. Rabi Crops:

  • Rabi crops are cultivated throughout the winter season and harvested in the spring and summer.
  • These crops need a warm climate for seed germination and maturation, but for growth, they need a cold climate.
  • Heavy rainfall is not suitable for rabi crops.

Wheat Coriander Oats
Mustard Potato Gram

2. Kharif Crops:

  • These crops are grown in the monsoon season.
  • The seeds of these crops are sown at the beginning of the monsoons, and the crops are harvested in September-October.
  • These crops require adequate rainfall with hot and humid weather for proper growth.

Rice Corn Sugarcane
Groundnut Cotton Soybean

Tools of Agriculture:

Tools of Agriculture

1. Traditional tools:

These tools are used in the traditional methods of agriculture, but their use has reduced considerably due to the onset of modern farming techniques.

a) Farmer’s plough: It is drawn by oxen or cows in the fields under the farmer’s supervision to loosen the soil.

Farmer’s plough

b) Spade: A spade has a flattened blade attached to a handle and is used for lifting soil, loose debris, and weeds. These are also dumped at some other place with the spade itself.


c) Shovel: These have angled blades that are curved at the front and are used to dig the soil and loosen it before sowing seeds.


d) Axe: An axe is a hand tool used for cutting, chopping and piercing. It is made with an iron blade having a wooden handle.


e) Hoe: It is made with sharpened and curved blades with long handles. A hoe is used to dig the soil before sowing seeds and to chop weeds.


f) Sickle: It is used by farmers to harvest crops. A sickle is made of a curved and sharpened blade.


Modern tools:

These tools are efficient and reduce the workload and time immensely. However, these are more expensive than the traditional tools, and not all farmers can afford them.

a) Tractor:

  • A tractor is a vehicle that acts as a modern agricultural tool.
  • It helps in ploughing, tilling, and sowing when combined with other implements.

b) Combine Harvester:

  • A combined harvester is a versatile machine that is used to harvest crops.
  • Reaping, threshing, gathering and winnowing can be done together by a combined harvester.
  • This machine saves both time and labour.
Combine Harvester

c) Pump Units:

  • Pump units are installed in the farmlands to supply adequate water in the agricultural fields.
  • Pipes remain attached to the pump units that help distribute the water uniformly throughout the land in a controlled manner.
Pump Units

d) Seed Drill:

  • Seed drills are modern machines that are used to dig and loosen the soil.
  • After loosening, the seeds are sown at equal distances in the field.
  • Seed drills also help sow the seeds at a certain level beneath the soil.
Seed drill

New Words:

Surplus: An excess production or supply.

Plantation: An extensive piece of land used for to cultivate tea, coffee, tobacco, rubber, etc.

Beverage: A drink other than water that is fit for consumption.

Threshing: Manual separation of grains from the crops.

Reaping: The process of harvesting crops.

Winnowing: It involves the separation of chaff from the grain.

Did You Know?

  • Zaid crops are cultivated between rabi and kharif crops. These crops are cultivated within a very short duration, mainly from March to June. Examples:Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber.

  • India is among the top four food-producing countries in the world after China, the USA and Brazil.
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