Prefix and Suffix
Concept: Nouns to Adjectives
What is a Root Word?
- A root word is the main or the base part of the word. The main word is used to create another word using a prefix or a suffix.
- To change the meaning of the word, either a prefix is added in front of a root word, or a suffix is added to the root word.
- A suffix is a group of letters added to the root word.
Root Words with Prefix and Suffix
For some words, both prefix and suffix can be added like the words given below.
|Root Word||Prefix + Root Word||Root Word +Suffix|
Adding Suffixes to the Root Word
- If you see words with the suffix –ment, it is likely to be a noun.
- The new word is slightly different from the root word or original word.
- In the table below, the word with the suffix -ful has changed verbs to adjectives and the suffix -ment and -ion have changed verbs to nouns.
|-ful||Forget, use||Forgetful, useful|
|-ment||State, govern||Statement, government|
How Spelling Changes When Adding Suffixes?
- Often the suffixes cause spelling changes to the original word.
- The letter ‘e’ is dropped off the root word to create a new word.
- The last letter ‘e’ of a word drops when the –ion is added.
- Beauty, duty + -ful 🡪 beautiful, dutiful (-y changes to –i)
- Heavy, ready + -ness 🡪 heaviness, readiness (-y changes to –i)
- Able, possible + -its 🡪 ability, possibility (le changes to li)
- Permit, omit +-ion 🡪 permission, omission (-t changes to ss)
Check out these common suffix examples.
|Suffix||Examples of Noun|
|-age||Village, baggage, postage|
- Adjective Suffixes:
- Verb Suffixes:
- He plays football.
- He played tennis.
- He had played poorly.
- Adverb Suffixes:
- Change words from Noun form to Adjectives
Adding a specific ending to a word can change a word from a noun to an adjective.
|Suffix||Examples of Adjectives|
This game is not playable.
(The suffix ‘able’ forms an adjective here)
In a sentence, you use a verb to show an action. Few verb suffixes that you might use in a sentence are given below:
|Suffix||Examples of Words|
(The suffix ‘s’ is added to the word play)
(Here the word ‘ed’ is added to make past tense)
(The word ‘ed’ is added to make a past participle.)
Adverbs are important because they convey information about adjectives or verbs. Suffixes like ‘ly’ are frequently used to make adverbs. Check out these adverb suffix examples.
|Suffix||Examples of Words|
|-wise||Anticlockwise, clockwise y|
He made a comment playfully.
(The word ‘fully’ forms here is an adverb)
Words can be changed from nouns to adjectives by a change in the root word. Notice some of the words have changed spelling as well when changed from the noun form to adjective.
|No.||Root Word||Noun form||Adjective form|
Wrong word ending is one of the errors with the newly formed word. Remember if you do not give a correct ending, you change the word into the wrong part of speech.
Until recently, the river Ganga contained dangerous levels of pollutants.
Until recently, the river Ganga contained dangering levels of pollutants.