Use of Prefixes and Suffixes for Grade 4| English Grammar| ORCHIDS
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Prefix and Suffix

Changing Nouns into Adjectives for class 4 English

Often to modify other nouns, words are changed into adjectives. Students of class 3 will learn how to change a noun into an adjective by adding suffixes or prefixes. Apart from that, the common mistakes that could occur while doing so are also clearly defined.

In this learning concept, the students will study:

  • Root word definition.
  • To add suffix to a noun.
  • To add prefix to a noun.
  • add a prefix or suffix to make new words
  • Noun to adjective list of examples

The class 3 English students are taught this concept using examples, illustrations, and concept maps. They can self-evaluate their learning by attempting to solve the two printable topic-based worksheets given at the end of the page. After going through the topic, students can download the worksheets and check the solutions provided in PDF format.

What is a Root Word?

  • A root word is the main or the base part of the word. The main word is used to create another word using a prefix or a suffix.
  • To change the meaning of the word, either a prefix is added in front of a root word, or a suffix is added to the root word.
  • A suffix is a group of letters added to the root word.
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Root Words with Prefix and Suffix

For some words, both prefix and suffix can be added like the words given below.

Examples:

Root WordPrefix + Root WordRoot Word +Suffix
friendsunfriendly
  • friendly
  • friendship
normalabnormal
  • normality
  • normalize
matureimmature
  • maturity

Adding Suffixes to the Root Word

  • If you see words with the suffix –ment, it is likely to be a noun.
  • The new word is slightly different from the root word or original word.
  • In the table below, the word with the suffix -ful has changed verbs to adjectives and the suffix -ment and -ion have changed verbs to nouns.
SuffixWordsNew Word
-fulForget, useForgetful, useful
-mentState, governStatement, government
-ionCreateCreation

How Spelling Changes When Adding Suffixes?

  • Often the suffixes cause spelling changes to the original word.
  • The letter ‘e’ is dropped off the root word to create a new word.
  • The last letter ‘e’ of a word drops when the –ion is added.

Examples:

  1. Beauty, duty + -ful ? beautiful, dutiful (-y changes to –i)
  2. Heavy, ready + -ness ? heaviness, readiness (-y changes to –i)
  3. Able, possible + -its ? ability, possibility (le changes to li)
  4. Permit, omit +-ion ? permission, omission (-t changes to ss)

Common Suffixes

Check out these common suffix examples.

Examples:

SuffixExamples of Noun
-ageVillage, baggage, postage
-alArrival, burial
-ance,-enceFreedom, boredom
-eeEmployee, trainee
-er,-orDriver, director
-hoodBrotherhood, childhood
-ismSocialism
-istCapitalist, socialist
-ity,-tyEquality, cruelty
-nessHappiness, kindness
  1. Adjective Suffixes:
  2. Adding a specific ending to a word can change a word from a noun to an adjective.

    SuffixExamples of Adjectives
    -able,-ibleDrinkable, flexible
    -alFormal, Postal
    -enBroken, wooden
    -fulBeautiful ,useful
    -ishSpanish, childish
    -iveActive, passive
    -ianCanadian, Persian
    -lessCareless, hopeless
    -lyMonthly, daily
    -ousFamous, cautious

    Example:

    This game is not playable.

    (The suffix ‘able’ forms an adjective here)

  3. Verb Suffixes:
  4. In a sentence, you use a verb to show an action. Few verb suffixes that you might use in a sentence are given below:

    SuffixExamples of Words
    -ateComplicate, irritate
    -enHarden, soften
    -ifBeautify ,identify

    Example:

    1. He plays football.
    2. (The suffix ‘s’ is added to the word play)

      verb suffixes
    3. He played tennis.
    4. (Here the word ‘ed’ is added to make past tense)

      adding verb suffixes
    5. He had played poorly.
    6. (The word ‘ed’ is added to make a past participle.)

      add verbs suffixes to make a new word
  5. Adverb Suffixes:
  6. Adverbs are important because they convey information about adjectives or verbs. Suffixes like ‘ly’ are frequently used to make adverbs. Check out these adverb suffix examples.

    SuffixExamples of Words
    -lyEasily, quickly
    -wardInward, outward
    -wise Anticlockwise, clockwise y

    Example:

    He made a comment playfully.

    (The word ‘fully’ forms here is an adverb)

  7. Change words from Noun form to Adjectives
  8. Words can be changed from nouns to adjectives by a change in the root word. Notice some of the words have changed spelling as well when changed from the noun form to adjective.

    Examples:

    No.Root WordNoun formAdjective form
    1.EnableAbilityAble
    2.AcceptAcceptanceAcceptable
    3.ActActionActive
    4.BeautifyBeautyBeautiful
    5.BelieveBeliefBelievable
    6.CareCareCareful
    7.DarkenDarkDarkness
    8.DescribeDescriptionDescribable
    9.EducateEducationEducated
    10.EncourageEncouragementEncouraging

Common Mistakes:

Wrong word ending is one of the errors with the newly formed word. Remember if you do not give a correct ending, you change the word into the wrong part of speech.

Example:

Until recently, the river Ganga contained dangerous levels of pollutants.

Until recently, the river Ganga contained dangering levels of pollutants.

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