Concept: Construction of Houses
- Building a house is a laborious and time-consuming task; one needs a professional and good workforce to do so.
- Making a building is teamwork as many people from various professions are attached to this, like the architects, masons, electricians, painters, plumbers, and many more.
- The construction of huts, mud houses, or wooden houses is simpler than making concrete buildings.
- They are mostly made with local materials, and expertise is not necessary for that type of work.
Steps of construction:
The different steps of construction involved in making a permanent building are briefly described below.
1. Foundation and subfloor:
- First, a strong foundation is made by pouring concrete or laying hard cement blocks.
- The foundation is done to protect the building from shifting, cracking, and sinking.
- The width and thickness of the cement blocks depend on the weight of the building and also the texture of the soil.
- The soil is prepared before making the concrete slabs. The subsoil is covered with a mixture of sand, gravel, and stones and then covered with polythene sheets. After that, metal rods are laid on top of that and finally, concrete is poured on it.
- Framing is the skeleton that supports the load-bearing concrete walls. These frames are either made of timbers or TMT bars.
- There are two types of frames—top and bottom frames and studs.
- Top frames run along the top of the wall, and bottom frames support the wall.
- Studs run between the top and the bottom frames.
- Roofs are constructed to protect the house from heat, wind, sunlight, rain, and snow.
- Roofs are of two types—sloping roofs and flat roofs.
- The framework of the roof is created with steel bar mesh and strengthened with concrete.
- Sloping roofs are made of timber.
4. Exterior walls:
- The outside walls of the building are called the exterior walls.
- Varieties of patterns and designs are made while making these types of walls.
- In a concrete building, pillars are made with TMT bars and solid concrete to support the roofs, and then bricks are arranged on layers and cement to construct the walls.
- We can say that bricks are the structural units of a wall.
- A wooden house's exterior walls are made of sheets of plywood or veneers.
- While making the exterior walls, insulating materials like fibre glass and mineral wool are sometimes used.
5. Interior walls:
- The interior walls are made either with gypsum plaster or cement.
- Both exterior and interior walls are painted with wall paints if made with cement.
- Interiors walls always have a smooth finish.
- Sometimes panels of wood and plywood are also used to decorate these walls.
- In the case of wooden houses, sheets of wood and plywood are used as floor covering.
- Floor tiles, polished marble, and anti-skid tiles are also used to make floors in concrete buildings.
- Plastic, steel, or brass pipes are installed in the kitchen and bathrooms for plumbing.
- Overhead water tanks are installed for water storage.
- Taps and other fixtures are appropriately placed, and the plumbers build up the drainage system.
- The electrician installs electric wires, switches, lamps, and other electric fixtures.
Materials used during construction of houses:
How is a mud house made?
We can see varieties of mud houses and traditional huts in the rural areas. Most of them are made with local materials.
Types of materials used to make mud huts:
|Hay||Cow dung||Gunny bags|
Steps to make a mud house:
- First, the soil is dug and collected and mixed with husk.
- The mixture is then used to make the walls.
- Mud is mixed with cow dung to coat the floor. Cow dung keeps insects away.
- The roof of a mud house can be made with tree branches or hay.
- If it is made of hay, then bunches of hay are arranged on the roof frames.
- If it is made up of tree branches or timber, then mud and gunny bags are used between the branches to seal the roof.
People involved in making our house:
a) Architect: They prepare the map of the house based on one’s requirement. The house map is made on a document or using computer software based on mathematical equations and calculations.
b) Engineer: They carry out the construction of the house based on the map prepared by the architect. They examine the land and soil quality on which the house is to be made. After that, the skeleton of the house is completed.
c) Mason: They are skilled in cutting, dressing, and laying stones. There are other labourers who help out the masons.
d) Carpenter: The carpenter does all the woodwork, including doors, windows, and furniture.
e) Plumber: They do the pipeline fittings of the house based on the water pressure of the locality.
f) Electrician: An electrician help provide electrical fittings of lights, fans, air conditioners, and other electrical appliances.
g) Painter: The painter’s job is to paint the building along with the doors and windows after the building is constructed.
Concrete: It is a tough building material made of cement, water, sand, and stone chips.
Subsoil: A layer of soil that is present right under the surface soil.
Plaster: It is used to give a smooth finished coating to the walls and is made up of gypsum, sand, and water.
Did You Know?
- In earthquake-prone areas, earthquake-proof buildings are made with flexible foundations. When an earthquake occurs, the building shakes but does not collapse.
- Concrete has been used for building some of the most famous structures, like the Roman Pantheon. The Ancient Romans made their special concrete using lime, seawater, and volcanic ash.