Different Kinds Of Houses EVS Grade 4 Learning Concepts | Orchids
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Shelter

Concept: Different Kinds of Houses

What is shelter?

Shelters are places where people stay to protect themselves from their surroundings, harsh weather, predators, and other dangers.

Why do we build houses?

  • We build houses to protect ourselves from extreme weather conditions, strong winds, storms, and other natural disasters.
  • We also keep our belongings and valuables securely in our house.
  • A house provides a family with a place to cook, eat, sleep, look after the young ones and take care of the elderlies.
  • It also protects us from human and animal enemies.
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Different kinds of houses in different places:

  • In cold regions, we see houses with sloping roofs that allow rainwater and snow to slide off easily.
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  • In large cities, we see high-rises, apartments, and buildings. The urban areas are highly populated, so multistoried houses are built to provide shelter to many people.
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  • In the rural areas, we see mud huts. Suitable materials to make concrete houses are not available in those regions, and people residing there cannot afford to make concrete buildings.
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  • Stilt houses are mostly found in regions receiving heavy rain and affected by frequent floods. These houses are built on stilts over the surface of the soil so that the house remains sheltered from the flood water.
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Types of houses:

The houses we see around us can be broadly divided into three groups—temporary houses, permanent houses, and special types of houses.

1. Permanent houses:

Permanent or pucca houses are built with wood, bricks, iron rods, cement, steel, and concrete. These houses are durable and can withstand the effects of natural calamities. Such houses are seen in both urban and rural areas.

Some of the permanent houses are discussed below—

a) Apartment:

  • An apartment is a space or dwelling in a multistoried building.
  • It can be either a small one or a huge spacious one.
  • An apartment usually has separate rooms like bedrooms, kitchen, living room, bathroom, study room, etc.
  • Some apartments have no separate rooms; instead, they have one large room with an open kitchen and individual bathrooms. These apartments are called studio apartments.
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b) Skyscraper:

  • It is a very tall building with multiple floors.
  • A skyscraper has to have a minimum of a hundred to a hundred and thirty storeys.
  • The main framework of skyscrapers is steel; they do not have the usual load-bearing concrete walls.
  • Skyscrapers are primarily used as offices, hotels, commercial, and even residential spaces.
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c) Bungalow:

  • A bungalow is a small house that is either one or two-storied with a sloping roof and dormer windows.
  • Bungalows have wide balconies where people can sit and relax.
  • They also have broad porches in the front and a spacious backyard.
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d) Farmhouse:

  • Farmhouses are usually made on plots far from the urban areas.
  • They have wooden roofs and timber or brick walls.
  • These houses have particular areas where people rear domestic animals.
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2. Temporary houses:

Temporary or kutcha houses are made of wood, mud, straw, and dry leaves. These houses are usually not durable and easily collapse during heavy rainfall and storms. People who move from one place to another for their livelihood generally build temporary houses.

Some of the temporary houses are discussed below—

a) Houseboats:

  • A boat that has been modified into a house is called a houseboat.
  • It is usually seen in lakes, canals, and rivers.
  • They have all the basic facilities that one finds in a typical house.
  • Houseboats are mostly used for recreational purposes.
  • In India, houseboats are commonly seen on the Dal Lake in Kashmir and the backwaters of Kerala.
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b) Hut:

  • A hut is a single-storied, small house built with several local materials like wood, stone, grass, leaves, hay, and tree branches.
  • Mud huts are made with special techniques, and their floor is made with a mixture of mud, husk, and cow dung.
  • In European countries, huts are made with wood and are called wooden sheds.
  • Sometimes makeshift huts are made to store grains and short-term accommodation.
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c) Tent:

  • A tent comprises fabric sheets that remain attached to supporting poles.
  • Tents are mostly used during camping by backpackers.
  • The fabric with which the tent is made is quite light, making it easy to carry.
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3. Special types of houses:

These are built for particular purposes like withstanding extreme weather conditions or simply for recreational purposes.

a) Camper Van:

  • A camper van is a type of motor home or motor caravan.
  • It is a type of vehicle that provides both transportation and accommodation.
  • These are mostly used by campers and travellers.
  • These vans have pop-up roofs that help in ventilation.
  • Solar panels are attached to the camper vans, which help in electricity generation.
  • The basic amenities like a microwave, a burner, a bed, a small desk, and a bathroom are present in these vans.
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b) Palace:

  • A palace is a massive, grand building with plenty of rooms.
  • These are usually owned by royal families, wealthy merchants, government officials, and other important persons.
  • Earlier, palaces were imperial residences of the members of the royal families.
  • Nowadays, many palaces have been turned into lavish hotels or museums.
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c) Igloo:

  • Igloos are shelters made with snow made by the local people of the Arctic region.
  • These are dome-shaped houses made with ice blocks.
  • The entrance of the igloo looks like a short tunnel that helps prevent the entry of cold wind.
  • The inside of an igloo is quite warm as air pockets trapped in the ice blocks do not allow the heat to escape.
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New Words:

Stilts: In this case, these are tall poles that are usually made of bamboo.

Dormer windows: A window that comes out vertically from a sloping roof.

Porch: A covered space located in front of the entrance of a building.

Backpacker: A person who travels with a backpack containing all their belongings, does not spend much money and stays in affordable places.

Ventilation: Movement of air within a room due to windows and doors.


Did You Know?

  • Treehouses are mostly made in the jungles. In the past, these houses were used for short-term accommodations for hunting wild animals.
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  • Container houses are built with ship containers; these are temporary houses that are made at construction sites.
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  • Castles were made in ancient times by the kings. They had unique structures that protected the place from external attack.
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