Learn About Fruits and Vegetables | EVS Grade 4 | Learning Concepts
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Agriculture

Concept: Fruits and Vegetables

What are Vegetables?

Vegetables are the leaves, stems, roots, or other parts of plants that people eat as food.

Examples: Potato, carrot, spinach, etc

Where do we buy vegetables?

  • To buy vegetables, we go to the market or buy them from push carts.
  • Going to a market is a better option because we get to see a variety of vegetables, but in a vegetable push cart, the options are sometimes limited.
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  • Before going to the market, the vegetable sellers separate the spoilt and rotten vegetables from the good ones.
  • In the market, they always try to sell the previous day’s vegetables first.
  • They sprinkle water on vegetables to keep them fresh.
  • If all vegetables are sold, they go to the wholesale market to buy and stock vegetables for the next day.
  • They buy vegetables, put them in gunny bags, and then carry those bags either to their shops or home.
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Different types of vegetables:

The vegetables that we can categorised into the following types—

1. Leafy vegetables:

  • Green plant leaves that are eaten are called leafy vegetables.
  • These vegetables are highly nutritious as they are rich in vitamins and minerals.
  • Leafy vegetables also contain dietary fibres and help in digestio.n
  • Leafy vegetables generally come from herbaceous and woody plants.
  • The leaves of fodder crops are also consumed, like barley and wheat.
  • Leafy vegetables are either eaten raw in salads or cooked before consumption.

Examples:

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2. Root vegetables:

  • Plant roots that are consumed as vegetables are called root vegetables.
  • These are underground plant parts and act as the storage organs of plants.
  • Many plants store carbohydrates in their roots, which are different from true roots. These roots are called tuberous roots.
  • Root vegetables are also called starchy vegetables, as they are rich in starch.
  • The leaves of fodder crops are also consumed, like barley and wheat.
  • Leafy vegetables are either eaten raw in salads or cooked before consumption.

Examples:

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3. Shoot vegetables:

  • The plant stems that are eaten as vegetables are called shoot vegetables.
  • These are storage shoots and modified shoots of the plant.

Examples:

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Some common fruits that we eat:

1. Mangoes:

  • Mangoes are tropical fruits rightly called the ‘King of Fruits’ for their amazing taste.
  • It is mainly grown in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and some countries in south-east Asia.
  • It is a sweet fruit and rich in vitamin A.
  • Raw mango is used to make daal and chutneys.
  • A mango has a long and flat seed at its centre.
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2. Watermelon:

  • Watermelon is a sweet fruit that is predominantly consumed during the summer.
  • It has a reddish or pinkish sweet pulp with many black seeds.
  • The fruit’s outer skin is green in colour.
  • Watermelons have a very high-water content.
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3. Jackfruit:

  • It is a tropical fruit, and both its ripe and unripe forms are consumed.
  • Ripe jackfruit is very sweet in taste.
  • Raw jackfruit has a meaty flavour and is used as a substitute for meat in vegan dishes.
  • The outer surface of this fruit is green and rough in texture.
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4. Coconut:

  • Coconut grows in tropical coastal regions.
  • Both coconut water and coconut flesh are edible.
  • It is also used to extract coconut oil which is used in cooking and cosmetics.
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5. Sugar apple:

  • Sugar apple is a sweet tropical fruit rich in vitamins.
  • The flesh of this fruit is either whitish or light yellow.
  • Raw jackfruit has a meaty flavour and is used as a substitute for meat in vegan dishes.
  • The outer covering of this fruit is divided into segments, and when these fruits ripen, those segments tend to separate.
  • It has hard, black, and shiny seeds
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6. Chikoo

  • It is a sweet fruit that grows in tropical areas.
  • It has a thin skin that can be peeled.
  • The flesh looks light brown, and the seeds are shiny black.
  • Only ripe fruits are eaten because unripe ones are very hard.
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7. Banana

  • Banana is a yellow-coloured fruit with no seeds inside.
  • It has different variants and has loads of nutritional importance.
  • This fruit is eaten in both ripe and unripe forms. The unripe banana, which has green skin, is used to make curries. Even banana blossoms are consumed in many ways
  • Banana is rich in vitamins and minerals and good for the gut.
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Summer and winter fruits and vegetables:

Vegetables and fruits can be classified based on the seasons in which they are found in the market

  • The vegetables found mainly during the summer season are called summer vegetables.
  • Examples: Bottle gourd, pointed gourd, brinjal, etc.

  • The fruits found mainly during the summer season are called summer fruits.
  • Examples: Mango, jackfruit, watermelon, etc.

  • The vegetables found mainly during the winter season are called winter vegetables.
  • Examples: Cauliflower, cabbage, beetroot, radish etc.

  • The fruits found mainly during the winter season are called winter fruits.
  • Examples: Apple, orange, grapes, etc.

However, due to the development of farming techniques, some of the above-mentioned vegetables and fruits (especially vegetables) are found in the market throughout the year.

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Importance of fruits and vegetables:

  • Fruits and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet.
  • These contain water, vitamins, minerals, and fibres.
  • Fresh vegetables and fruits can be eaten raw.
  • Vegetables are added to different food preparations in different forms like baked, boiled, steamed, fried, etc.
  • Fruits and vegetables are canned or frozen for future use.

New Words:

Fodder: Dried straw or hay that is used as food for cattle or livestock.

Starch: It is a component of food that is made of carbohydrates.

Tropical: Indicates the climate, which is hot, humid, and frost-free.

Vegan: Food that does not have any animal-derived products.


Did You Know?

  • Many fruits have seedless varieties like watermelon, grapes, papaya, cucumber, etc.
  • The first vegetable to be grown in space was the potato.
  • The part of broccoli we eat is tiny flowers that have not blossomed. Once the flower blooms fully, the broccoli tastes bitter and unpleasant.
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  • Aggregate fruits are made of hundreds of little fruits, each containing a seed. Examples: Raspberries and blackberries.
  • Most of the nutrients in a potato are found just below its skin
  • Some foods we know as vegetables are actually fruits, like cucumbers, squashes, eggplants, and pumpkins.
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