Concept: Handlooms of India
- The weaving industry in India dates back to the Indus valley civilization, when people started growing cotton and were skilled in how to make fabric with that.
- India is a diverse country with a variety of weavers who produce different types of fabric.
- In ancient India, weavers learnt about silk manufacturing from China.
How is yarn transformed into a cloth?
Handloom industry in India:
- The handloom industry is the most diversified in our country.
- A handloom is a device that weaves fabric manually without electricity. It takes a lot of labour and time to weave these fabrics.
- India produces some of the finest handlooms that are shown in the following map—
The different and unique handlooms of India are briefly described below—
1. Kanjeevaram silk-
- State of origin: Tamil Nadu.
- It is one of the most expensive handwoven silk fabrics.
- The fabric got its name from the city of Kanchipuram, where it is made.
- The fabric is lustrous and has elaborated zari work.
- The expensive sarees have designs made with gold threads.
- State of origin: Madhya Pradesh.
- It is a traditional saree mentioned in many Hindu mythological books.
- Chanderi fabrics are of three types— made with silk, cotton, and silk and cotton.
- Due to its light and sheer texture it is also called ‘woven air’.
3. Muga silk:
- State of origin: Assam.
- The Muga silk is made only in Assam and is known as the ‘golden fibre’.
- This silk has a very fine texture with high durability, and the colour of this silk is naturally yellow.
- This fabric is washable, and with each wash, the lustre of the fabric increases.
- Mekhela-chador, the traditional attire of Assamese women, is made with Muga silk.
- State of origin: Gujarat.
- It is a tie and dye type of textile found in bright colours like yellow, red, blue, black, etc.
- This fabric is made by the local Khatri community of Gujarat.
- A distinguishable feature of this fabric is its light-coloured dots in various patterns and designs.
5. Kosa silk:
- State of origin: Chattisgarh.
- Desi Tussar silk sarees are called by the Sanskrit name Kosa silk sarees.
- Kosa silk is more durable than pure silk and is obtained from specific breeds of silkworm whose cocoons are found in Sal and Arjun trees.
- A single saree takes five days to complete.
- Champa and Korba in Chattisgarh produce the maximum quantity of Kosa silk.
- State of origin: West Bengal.
- It is made of tussar silk and is primarily made in the Murshidabad and Bishnupur districts of West Bengal.
- Mythological scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata are depicted on such sarees.
- Using jacquard looms, a saree takes at least five to six days to complete.
- State of origin: Andhra Pradesh.
- It is a hand-painted or block-printed cotton-based textile.
- The designs of the kalamkari fabric are done with vegetable colours.
- Wooden stamps are also used to make the designs.
- In this era, digital machines are used to print kalamkari fabrics.
- State of origin: Maharashtra.
- It is a type of handwoven silk saree worn by the Maratha royals.
- The pallus of Paithani sarees have peacocks, parrot, or flower motifs.
- Due to its weaving pattern, a Paithani saree looks exactly the same on both sides.
- This saree is an integral part of Maharashtrian culture.
- State of origin: Uttar Pradesh.
- These sarees are pretty heavy and made with silk fabrics.
- They are designed with intricate patterns of zari or silver brocade.
- Kalga, bel, and upright leafy motifs are used to design these sarees.
- As per designs, these sarees take twenty days to six months to complete.
- The fabrics are gorgeous and used for weddings and other grand functions.
10. Patan patola:
- State of origin: Gujarat.
- These are silk-made double-woven sarees.
- Patola is an expensive saree, and the weaving process of this fabric takes a long time.
- These sarees are famous for their intricate and complex geometrical style.
- State of origin: Odisha.
- It is also known as the Sonepuri saree.
- These sarees are made of cotton or silk and are famous for their thread work and pallu.
- Temple, tortoise, and lotus motifs are used to design these sarees.
- State of origin: Telangana.
- These sarees can be made with cotton, silk, or a blend of cotton and silk.
- Pochampally fabric is a type of double ikat textile.
- Colours are used from natural sources and their mixtures.
Loom: A loom is a machine to weave fabrics from threads.
Motif: A figure or decorative image used repeatedly to design fabrics.
Pallu: It is the loose end of a saree worn over one shoulder.
Ikat: It is a type of fabric that is woven from a tied and dyed yarn.
Did You Know?
- Jamdani fabric is originally from Bangladesh but is also made in West Bengal. Traditional jamdani fabrics used to be made with muslins.
- Chikan Kari and Phulkari are types of embroidery designs from Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Phulkari is done with flower motif stitches on light-coloured fabrics. Chikan Kari is done with chikan stitches.
- Shisha is a type of embroidery work with designer glass pieces. This artwork was brought to India by the Mughals. Shisha toranas are hung over the entrances of homes to ward off evil.