Multiplication - Orchids The International School
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Operations on numbers

Multiplication

Terms related to multiplication

Multiplication: Repeated addition is to add equal groups or the same number over and over. Multiplication is the repetitive addition.

Multiplicand: The number that is to be multiplied is called the multiplicand.

Multiplier: The number with which we multiply is called the multiplier.

Product: The number that is obtained as the result of multiplication is called the product.

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Grid method of multiplication

  • Grid method is the method to multiply the number by portioning it into simpler place value.
  • It is also known as box method.

Multiplication of 3-digit and 1-digit numbers using the grid method

Step 1: Expand the first number as hundreds, tens, and ones within the grid.
Step 2: Multiply each digit of the first number by the second number. Write all the products within the grid.
Step 3: Add all the obtained product outside the grid.

Example:

Multiply 346 by 6 using the grid method.

Solution:

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Therefore, 346 × 6 = 2076.

Multiplication of 2-digit numbers using the grid method

Step 1: Expand the first number as tens and ones within the grid.
Step 2: Expand the second number as tens and ones within the grid.
Step 3: Multiply each digit of the first number by each digit second number. Write all the products within the grid.
Step 4: Add all the obtained product outside the grid.

Example:

Multiply 28 by 24 using the grid method.

Solution:

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Therefore, 24 × 28 = 672.

Multiplication of 3 or 4-digit numbers by 1-digit number

Step 1: Write the multiplicand on the top
Step 2: Write the multiplier below it.
Step 3: Multiply each digit of the multiplicand by the multiplier starting from the extreme right.
Step 4: Write the product below the horizontal line. If the product is more than 9 then carry the ten digits to the next column.

Example:

Multiply 354 by 7.

Solution:

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Multiplication of 2 or 3-digit number by 2-digit number

Step 1: Write the multiplicand on the top.
Step 2: Write the multiplier below it.
Step 3: Multiply the unit digit of the multiplier by each digit of the multiplicand. If the product is more than 9 then carry the ten digits to the next column.
Step 4: Write the product below the horizontal line.
Step 5: Place a 0 below the last digit of the obtained productMultiply the tens digit of the multiplier by each digit of the multiplicand. If the product is more than 9 then carry the ten digits to the next column.
Step 6: Multiply the tens digit of the multiplier by each digit of the multiplicand. If the product is more than 9 then carry the ten digits to the next column.
Step 7: Add both the obtained products.

Example:

Multiply 213 by 27.

Solution:

Write 213 on the top and 27 below it.

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Properties of Multiplication:

  1. If a number is multiplied by 0 then the product is 0.

    Example:

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  2. If a number is multiplied by 1 then the product is the number itself.

    Example:

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  3. If the number “a” is multiplied by the number “b” then the product is same as the number “b” multiplied by the number “a”.

    Example:

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