**Fractions**

A **fraction** is a quantity that express **a part of the whole**.

**Examples:*** A quarter is a fraction of the whole*

**Reading and Writing Fractions**

We represent a fraction by two numbers written above and below a horizontal line.

The number written above the horizontal line is called the **numerator** and the number below
the horizontal line is called the **denominator **.

The horizontal line is called the **fraction line ** or **vinculum**.

The numerator represents the number of parts selected/we have.

The denominator represents the total number of parts the whole is divided into.

Numerators are read using regular numbers, and denominators are read using ordinal numbers (third, fourth, fifth, etc.).

**Halves and Quarters as Fractions**

Half is represented by 1/2, quarter by 1/4, and three quarters by 3/4.

**Fraction of a Collection**

In a group of persons/things, we can represent a person/something as a fraction of the whole group.

The denominator of the fraction represents the total number of persons/ things in a group/collection.

The numerator represents the number of the things/persons selected from the collection/group

**Example:**

**Question: **There are 2 boys and 3 girls in a class.

- Write the number of boys as a fraction of the total number of students in the class.
- Write the number of girls as a fraction of the total number of students in the class.

**Answer: **There are 5 students in the class.

- Since there are 2 boys out of 5 students, write 2 as the numerator and 5 as the denominator to represent the number of boys as a fraction of the total number of students in the class. That is 2/5.
- Since there are 3 girls out of 5 students, write 3 as the numerator and 5 as the denominator to represent the number of girls as a fraction of the total number of students in the class. That is 3/5

** New words:**

**Fraction: ** The word fraction is derived from the Latin word ‘fractio’ which means ‘to break’.

**Vinculum: **The word ‘vinculum’ is a Latin word, which means a bond or a chain.

Vinculum is also the name of a band of connective issue found in our fingers.

**Fun Fact:**

Lands were divided into sections, and each section was taxed a certain amount.

**Did you know?**

The Earth is a watery place, about 3/4 (three-fourth) of the Earth’s surface is covered by water and the oceans hold most of the Earth’s water.