Cells and Tissues - Learning Concepts
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Human Body

Concept: Cells and Tissues

  • Cells are the structural and functional units of the living body.
  • Tissues originate from cells. A tissue constitutes a group of cells.
  • Cells are of two types: (i) Animal cells and (ii) Plant cells.

Animal Cell:

Parts of an animal cell Structure and functions
1. Cell Membrane It is the thin lining that covers the cell.
2. Cytoplasm A fluid-like substance inside the cell.
3. Nucleus It is located at the centre of the cell and controls all activities of the cell.
4. Mitochondria Numerous mitochondria are present in the cytoplasm. It produces energy to keep the cell active.
5. Ribosome Ribosomes are present in large numbers in the cytoplasm. They help in protein synthesis.

Plant Cell:

Parts of a plant cell Structure and functions
1. Cell Wall It is the outermost covering of the plant cell. It is made up of waxy materials and protects the cell from external stress.
2. Cell Membrane It is the thin lining that covers the cell.
3. Cytoplasm It is the fluid-filled matrix that is present inside the cell.
4. Vacuoles These are closed fluid-filled pouch-like structures present inside the cytoplasm.
5. Nucleus It is located either in the centre of the cell or may shift to the sides. The nucleus controls all activities of the cell.
6. Plastid Plastids are present in the cytoplasm of all plant cells. They store food and contain colourful pigments. Green plastids are called chloroplasts.
Plant cells also have ribosomes and mitochondria in the cytoplasm.

Characteristics of tissues:

  • Various types of tissues are present in the human body.
  • A tissue is made with a pack of cells that originate from the same source, i.e., structurally, they are similar and perform the same function.


Epithelial tissue, which makes our skin; muscle tissue which makes our body muscles.


New Words

Matrix: A jelly-like substance that is present inside all cells.

Membrane: A thin layer that forms the outer lining of a cell.

Did You Know?

Millions of cells together make a tissue. Several tissues together make an organ, and several organs together make our body.


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