Parts of a Plant
Concept: Flowers and their Uses
Flowers are the most colourful and attractive parts of a plant. Also, they are the reproductive part of the plant. Fruits that develop from flowers have seeds that germinate and grow into new plants.
Parts of a flower:
- The pedicel is the stalk of the flower.
- It helps the flower to remain attached to the plant body.
- The pedicel that supports a cluster of flowers is called the peduncle.
- It is the swollen end of the pedicel or the flower stalk.
- The receptacle is also called the thalamus.
- The flower remains in an erect position due to the receptacle and it is able to attract the insects for pollination.
- These are small leafy parts that protect the flower when it is a bud.
- Sepals also support the petals once the bud blooms.
- Sepals are either fused or separated.
- It is the outermost layer of the flower and is collectively known as calyx.
- Petals are the most beautiful and prominent part of the flower.
- They attract insects like honeybees and butterflies with vivid colours and alluring scent.
- The number and colour of petals vary in nature.
- Stamen is the male reproductive organ of a flower.
- It consists of the following parts—
- Anther: It is a yellowish sac-like structure located at the top of the filament. The function of the anther is to produce and store pollen grains.
- Filament: It is a narrow thread-like structure that supports the stamen.
- The pistil is the female reproductive organ and is the innermost part of the flower.
- The pistil has three parts, namely, stigma, style and ovary.
- Stigma: It is the top part of the pistil.
- Style: It is the middle stalk of the pistil that connects the stigma to the ovary.
- Ovary: It constitutes the base of the pistil. It is a swollen structure that contains many ovules. It is the site of seed formation in a plant.
Significance of flowers:
Flowers are significant for a plant as they are involved in the process of reproduction. The following chart shows the steps involved in the formation of a new plant—
- It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of another flower.
- Pollinators like honeybees, butterflies, bats, hornets help in pollination as they are attracted to the flowers by their bright colours and sweet smell.
- Even other agents of nature like air and water help in pollination.
- After pollination, the pollen grains reach the stigma of the flower.
- A tube forms at the stigma and extends up to the ovary.
- All pollen grains migrate through that pollen tube to fuse with the ovules present in the ovary of the flower.
- This phenomenon is called fertilisation.
- After fertilisation, the ovary is transformed into a fruit.
- Seed germination:
- The fruits, once formed, start to mature with time.
- The fruits carry seeds in them.
- Under different conditions, the seeds get exposed.
- The seeds in the presence of sunlight, water and oxygen sprout to form a tiny baby plant.
- The process by which the seed gives rise to a new plant is called seed germination.
- Gradually, the baby plant grows to form an adult plant.
Uses of flowers:
- For decorating: Flowers are beautiful to look at and so are used extensively for decoration purposes in various events like weddings, birthdays, festivals, etc. Flowers can be used in different arrangements like potpourri, bouquets, ikebana to decorate our surroundings.
- In religious places: Flowers are used in different holy places as an offering to the almighty God.
- In essential oils: These are oils extracted from plants that relieve stress, improve our mood and help us relax. Some essential oils are specifically extracted from flowers like rose, jasmine, juniper, berry, chamomile, lavender, etc.
- As food: Some flowers can be consumed as food like Agati flower, banana flower, pumpkin flower, etc. These are cooked in different forms like in curries or fried.
- In herbal colours: Extracts of China rose, rose, marigold, jacaranda flowers are used to make herbal colours.
- In perfumes: Perfumes with floral smell are made with the extracts of flowers like rose, tuberose, jasmine, lavender, lilac etc.
Ovules: These are very small egg-like structures encased inside the flower’s ovary. When the ovary is transformed into fruit, ovules get transformed into seeds.
Ikebana: It is a traditional Japanese art of flower arrangement.
Potpourri: It is a mixture of dried flower petals and fragrant spices used to perfume a room.
Reproduction: It is a process by which any living being can produce its offspring and increase in numbers. In the case of plants, reproduction helps to create new plants from seeds.
Did You Know?
- The lotus is the National Flower of India. It is considered sacred and unique. However, the lotus flower is also sacred to the Egyptians as in ancient times, they used it in their burial rituals.
- The Titan Arum is considered the largest flower in the world. It is almost 10 feet tall and 3 feet wide.
- We all use flowers in our homes but do you know to keep cut flowers fresh for a longer time, we should add a pinch sugar to the water in the vase.
- Saffron is one of the most expensive spices in the world and it comes from a flower.