Measuring Instruments | Grade 4 Science | Learning Concepts Measurement

Concept: Measuring Instruments

• We use different measuring instruments to measure various physical quantities.
• Measuring things is an activity that we do quite often in our daily lives as it makes our life easier.
• The instruments that we use for measurement may range from simple to complex. Measurement of length, perimeter, and area:

• Length defines how long or tall something is.
• Perimeter tells us the distance around an object or space.
• The area is the amount of space that an object or shape covers.

Measuring instruments used:

We use the same tools while measuring an object’s length, perimeter, and area.

• To get the perimeter and area of a particular shape, we need to measure the length of the sides first. To measure this, we can use the following tools—
• Ruler (both inch ruler and centimetre ruler)
• Metre stick
• Measuring tape
• We use inch and centimetre rulers for smaller objects. For larger objects, we can use meter sticks and measuring tapes.
• Units such as inch, foot, and miles are used in the United States.
• Metric units such as centimetres, metres, and kilometres are commonly used worldwide. Measurement of weight:

Weight indicates how heavy or light something is or how much mass is present in an object.

Measuring instruments used:

• We generally use weighing scales to measure the weight of objects.
• Scales come in different sizes; some can weigh light things, and some can weigh heavy things.
• Many shopkeepers and vegetable and fruit sellers use a balance to weigh the goods in our country.
• There are both analogue and digital weighing scales.
• Weight can be measured in grams and kilograms.
• In countries like the United States, ounces, pounds and tons are also used. Measurement of volume of liquids:

When liquid is poured into a container, it takes up a specific space, which is its volume.

Measuring instruments used:

• We measure the volume of liquids using a beaker and a measuring cylinder.
• Beakers are marked with lines that help us tell the volume.
• Cylinders, pipettes, and burettes are used for measuring smaller volumes of liquids.
• Teaspoons and tablespoons are used to measure the volume of liquids used while cooking.
• Volume can be measured in millilitres and litres.
• In the United States, volume is also measured in gallons, pints, quarts, and cups.  Measurement of time:

• Time can be measured in terms of years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes and seconds.
• We use calendars and watches to do this.
• We use stopwatches to measure how long it takes to do something.
• An hourglass or egg timer can be used to measure time. Measuring temperature:

Temperature tells us how cold or hot the weather, a place, or a thing/ object is, which means how much heat is present in an object.

Measuring instruments used:

• We measure temperature by using a thermometer.
• There are different thermometers like digital thermometers, oral thermometers, mercury thermometers, etc.
• The units of measurement of temperature are Celsius (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F). New Words:

Physical quantity: A physical property of a material that can be measured.

Hourglass: : A device consisting of two glass bulbs containing sand connected. It takes one hour for the sand to pass from the upper to the lower bulb. It is a device used to measure time.

Did You Know?

• A ship's speed is measured in knots, and one knot is equivalent to one nautical mile per hour.
• A compass is a measuring tool that is used to measure cardinal directions for navigation and geographic orientation. 