Organs of the digestive system - Orchids The International School
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Digestive System

Concept: Organs of the Digestive System

What is the digestive system?

The different organs and body parts of the human body that are involved in the process of digestion constitute the digestive system.

The human digestive system includes the gastrointestinal tract and the other accessory organs of digestion.

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Parts of the digestive system:

  • Mouth/Oral cavity: The first part of the digestive system is the oral cavity, which has the tongue, teeth and salivary glands inside it. Food enters the body through the mouth.
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  • Salivary glands: These glands are present inside the oral cavity. They secrete a fluid-like substance called saliva.

  • Oesophagus: Next comes the oesophagus or the food pipe, a tube-like structure that extends up to the stomach. Food passes from the mouth to the stomach through this tube.
  • Liver: The liver is located at the right side of the body below the ribs, above the stomach. It secretes bile. The liver is the largest organ of the human body.
  • Stomach: The stomach is a hollow organ located on the upper left side of the belly. It collects food from the oesophagus and passes it to the intestines.

  • Gall Bladder: It is a pear-shaped gland attached to the liver with a tube. It lies just beneath the liver and stores bile secreted by the liver.
  • Pancreas: It is a flat gland that is located behind the stomach. It secretes juices that help in digestion of food.
  • Small intestine: It remains coiled but is the longest region of the digestive system. The liver and the pancreas remain joined to the small intestine with tubes. The food remains stored in the small intestine for some time.
  • Large intestine/Colon: In comparison to the small intestine, the large intestine is shorter and broader. The undigested food materials pass through this part as waste.
  • Anus: The last part of the digestive system is the anus. It is an opening through which solid undigested food materials are excreted out of the body as faeces.

  • Glands of the digestive system:

    There are five types of glands present in the digestive system—

    • Salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas and gastric glands of the stomach.
    • They secrete juices that facilitate the process of digestion.

    New words

    Glands : These are tissues or organs that produce substances required by other tissues or organs to work properly. Glands can be of two types—exocrine and endocrine.

    Bile : A fluid made and secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Bile aids in digestion and helps in the breakdown of food.


    Did You Know?

    • When a baby grows inside the womb, her liver produces blood that carries oxygen to all parts of the body.
    • The small intestine, as the name suggests, isn’t small at all. If the coiled structure is stretched out, it will cover space of the size of an entire tennis court.
    • You must have heard your stomach make sounds. But do you know why it does so? It sounds the loudest when your stomach is empty. It happens due to the movement of fluids and gases in your stomach. The sound is described as ‘borborygmi’.
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