Root system: Roots, their types, structure and functions | ORCHIDS
Job Alert : To view our Careers Page Click Here X
info@orchids.edu.in (+91) 8-888-888-999
ORCHIDS The International School

Parts of a Plant

Concept: Root System

What are roots?

Roots are the non-leafy part of a plant’s body that grow below the soil. They support the plant body and help to anchor the plant to the ground. The roots also help in the absorption of nutrients from the soil. We also see several types of modified roots, like floating roots and aerial roots.

Nature-1

Parts of a root system:

The root system consists of the primary root and all its parts.

Primary root:

  • It is the main trunk of the root system that grows underneath the soil layer.
  • All other parts of the root system emerge from the primary root.

Lateral root:

  • These roots emerge horizontally from the primary root.
  • They grow and form the branching pattern of the root system.

Root hair:

  • These are hairy outgrowths that arise a few inches above the root cap.
  • These hairs absorb nutrients and water from the soil layers.

Root tip and Root cap:

  • The end of the root is called the root tip that remains protected by a cap-like structure called the root cap.
  • The cap protects the delicate root tip from injury as it pushes through the soil.
  • The cells of this region constantly divide and form new cells, and for this reason, the root grows downward and penetrate deeper into the soil.
Nature-1

Functions of the root system:

  • Anchorage and support: Roots provide physical support to the plant by anchoring it to the soil.
  • Absorption: Root hair help the plant absorb water and nutrients from the soil. After the water is absorbed, it gradually moves to the different parts of the plant.
  • Transport: Roots have specialized cells that help conduct water and nutrients upwardly to the stems and leaves.
  • Storage: Some roots act as a storage organ. For example, the roots of carrots and sweet potatoes store food in them. Some desert plant roots are capable of storing water in them.

Types of roots:

Roots are basically of two types—Tap root and fibrous root.

Tap Root Fibrous Root
  • It is the primary root.
  • It persists throughout the lifetime of a plant.
  • Found in dicot plants.
  • This type of root grows very deep into the soil.

Example: Carrot and beetroot.

  • This root can develop from any part of the plant.
  • This root does not persist throughout the lifetime of a plant.
  • Found in monocot plants.
  • This type of root does not grow very deep into the soil.

Example: Grasses and lilies.

Nature-1

Types of tap root:

Nature-1
Conical: Carrot
Nature-1
Fusiform: Radish
Nature-1
Tuberous: 4 o’clock
Nature-1
Napiform: Turnip

Types of fibrous root:

Nature-1
Nodulous: Curcuma amanda
Nature-1
Prop root: Banyan
Nature-1
Climbing: Betel
Nature-1
Parasitic: Dodder

New Words:

Monocot: The seeds of these plants cannot be divided into two equal halves.

Dicot: The seeds of these plants can be divided into two equal halves.

Did You Know?

  • Carrot, radish, beetroot, turnip all are root vegetables.
  • Even sweet potato is also a root vegetable that is loaded with nutrients.
  • Sweet pea is a dicot plant as we can break its seed into two equal halves.
  • Corn is a monocot plant because we cannot break its seed into two equal halves.
  • The roots grow above the soil in mangroves, epiphytes, and certain orchids.
Nature-1
  • -

    Admission Enquiry

    A Journey To A Better Future Begins With Us