Parts of a Plant
Concept: Shoot System
What is a shoot?
A shoot is the leafy part of a plant’s body that grows above the soil.
Parts of a shoot:
The basic parts of the shoot are—stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.
Characteristics of a shoot:
- The shoot system is important because the leaves help the plant to make its food, the flowers and fruits help the plant in propagation.
- Most of the parts of a shoot system appear green because of the pigment called chlorophyll. It plays a vital role in photosynthesis.
- Flowers are the most colourful parts of a plant. They attract pollinators like insects, honeybees and butterflies to facilitate the process of pollination.
Parts of the shoot system:
The different parts of the shoot system, along with their structures and functions, are described below—
- It is the fundamental part of the shoot system.
- The stem is also known as the trunk (in the case of trees). The stem gives rise to branches, which bear leaves, flowers and fruits.
- The stem grows above the soil.
- A node is a point anywhere in the stem from where a new twig emerges. It could also be a point of attachment of a leaf.
- The area between two successive nodes is called an internode.
- When a plant grows, its internodes also increase in size.
- Axil is also known as the leaf angle.
- It is the angle between the upper side of a leaf and the stem from where it grows.
- The petiole is the stalk of the leaf.
- All leaf blades arise from petioles.
- Petioles help the leaf to remain attached to the plant stem.
6. Leaf blade:
- Leaf blade is nothing but the leaf itself.
- It is the widest part of the leaf that remains attached to the petiole.
7. Apical bud:
- The bud located at the top of the plant is known as the apical bud.
- Apical bud helps the plant to grow terminally.
8. Axillary bud:
- Axillary buds are also called lateral buds.
- This bud grows at the junction between a leaf and the stem.
- These buds help the plant to grow laterally.
- Flowers are the most colourful structures of the shoot system.
- The buds bloom to form flowers.
- Flowers help in pollination.
- Fruits are produced from the flowers.
- Fruits are the fleshy edible parts of the shoot system.
- Fruits bear seeds that give rise to new plants.
- Fruits are developed from flowers.
Functions of the shoot system:
- Support: The shoot system supports the whole plant body, and it also helps in leaf orientation so that they can get the maximum sunlight.
- Conduction of water and minerals: The shoot of the plant helps to conduct the water and minerals that were absorbed by the root system to the leaves.
- Bear flowers and fruits: The shoot system supports flowers and fruits, and that is how it helps in pollination, production of fruits and plant propagation.
- Photosynthesis: The shoot system supports the leaves, which is the primary site of photosynthesis, a process by which plants make their food.
Types of leaves according to their arrangements:
Simple leaf: When only one leaf arises from the petiole.
Compound leaf: When more than one leaf arises from the
Opposite compound: When leaves are arranged opposite to each other at both sides of the leaf stalk.
Alternate compound: When leaves are arranged
alternately to each other on the leaf stalk.
Modifications of stem:
Chlorophyll: It is the green-coloured pigment that is present in most plants. It helps the plants to make their food by photosynthesis.
Pollination: It is the process through which the pollen grains are carried from one flower to another flower by pollinators like honeybees and butterflies.
Did You Know?
- Some trees like pine do not have flowers. Instead of flowers, they have cones. Pine cones appear as scaly overlapping wooden conical structures.
- Fruits also have different parts—
- The stalk of the fruit is called the pedicel.
- The skin of the fruit is called the exocarp.
- The fleshy and pulpy edible part of the fruit is called the mesocarp.
- The outer covering of the seed is called the endocarp.
- These three layers together are called the pericarp.