Immigration Meaning, Causes and Effects for Class 5 EVS
From this concept, the students will be introduced to the concept of Immigration and its causes and effects in detail.
After reading the concept, students will be able to:
- Explain immigration meaning.
- Mention how natural disasters lead to resettlement.
- Define urbanisation meaning.
- Brief the causes of deforestation and justify how it is leading to wildlife extinction.
- State the difference between natural and man-made disasters.
Each concept is explained to class 5 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.
Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept of the Immigration Meaning, Causes and effects provided in PDF format.
What is Resettlement?
- Resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to a distant area.
- It happens due to forced migration, mostly due to natural or man-made disasters and bad economic conditions.
- Due to resettlement, people often lose valuable economic assets like houses or lands, jobs, cultural identity, etc.
- After the resettlement, proper rehabilitation for the newly resettled community is mandatory to safeguard them in the new environment.
Causes of Resettlement:
The causes of resettlement can be of the following types—
1. Natural Disasters: These are one of the significant causes behind resettlement.
- An earthquake is a natural disaster caused by the sudden shaking of the earth’s surface.
- The earth’s crust is made of several plates known as tectonic plates.
- These tectonic plates constantly move on the earth’s mantle.
- While floating, when one tectonic plate slide over another one, an earthquake occurs.
- From the zone of the slide over, shock waves spread in all directions, which causes sudden shaking of the earth’s surface.
- Earthquakes can destroy an entire habitat, including trees, concrete roads, buildings, bridges, etc.
- They can induce a sudden outbreak of fire.
- Many people die and get injured due to the severity of an earthquake.
- As earthquakes cause extensive destruction of properties, people may need other places for resettlement.
- Floods happen when a dry land area suddenly becomes waterlogged due to the overflow of water.
- It may happen for various reasons, like continuous heavy rainfall over a long time.
- The water overflows from adjacent lakes, rivers, or reservoirs.
- Floods may cause deadly water-borne diseases like jaundice, cholera, typhoid, dengue, malaria, etc.
- They destroy vegetation, livestock, properties, and valuable belongings.
- A tsunami is a massive ocean wave caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption.
- A tsunami can produce a series of enormous waves that can cause severe damage to man-made structures.
- When earthquakes happen underwater, the ocean floor suddenly lifts or slides down, causing a sudden displacement of the ocean water that creates massive waves.
- After the tsunami, many water-borne diseases spread, causing severe health hazards.
- The huge waves formed by a tsunami are fatal as they can destroy houses and buildings and kill or injure people.
d) Cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons:
- Cyclones, hurricanes, or typhoons are tropical storms mainly affecting coastal areas.
- During these storms, strong winds continuously spin around a centre.
- These storms always form above the warm ocean and hit land with heavy rains and strong winds.
- During cyclones, winds blow around 120 kilometres per hour.
- Such strong winds can uproot trees and can cause severe damage to life and property.
- After the storm subsides, places remain waterlogged for a long time, resources get destroyed, and drinking water gets contaminated, which makes normal life difficult in the affected areas.
- A wildfire is a massive, destructive, and uncontrolled fire that takes place in a forested area.
- Forest fires can happen for many reasons, and the causes could be natural or man-made.
- A lightning strike in a dry forest can cause fire that may destroy the whole forest.
- Sometimes these forest fires happen from campfires or lit cigarettes.
- Forest fires mainly destroy trees and shrubs, which are good resources for the local people dependent on forest products.
- A drought happens when a particular area does not get sufficient rainfall for a long period.
- It is an effect of a continuous period of dry weather.
- Crops and other plants do not grow in drought-affected areas due to the absence of water.
- Droughts can transform fertile land into a desert.
- Droughts can cause famine, and people may start to resettle in other fertile places to improve their lives.
g) Volcanic eruption:
- During a volcanic eruption, magma erupts from the opening of the volcano.
- The magma released from a volcano when it comes out is called lava. It has a high temperature and is fatal for all living organisms.
- A volcanic eruption can cause wildfires and destroy human habitats.
- It also destroys agricultural lands and deteriorates the water quality of the affected area.
- These are the reasons why people may need to resettle in other places after volcanic eruptions.
- Landslides happen when rocks, sand, and mud roll down the mountain slopes.
- They cause massive destruction because while moving down the slope, the rocks, mud, pebbles, and sand sweep away everything that falls on their paths, like houses, trees, shops, streetlights, etc.
- Roads and rivers are also blocked due to landslides.
- Landslides cause fatal accidents to humans and animals and destroy natural vegetation.
- Mostly deforestation and excessive rainfall are the reasons for landslides.
2. Man-Made disasters: man-made incidents that force people to resettle in other areas are described below.
a) Industrial accidents:
- Industrial accidents may lead to the sudden discharge of toxic materials that may contaminate land and water.
- When people breathe this polluted air or drink contaminated water, they fall sick.
- Industrial accidents are fatal for all living beings.
- These accidents do not permanently destroy the habitat but make it unfit for living.
b) Collapse of Dams:
- A dam collapses or bursts due to the sudden, uncontrolled release of excess water.
- Dam bursts can kill people and destroy homes.
- A dam failure causes flooding, and floods cause habitat destruction of both humans and animals, along with the occurrence of many water-borne diseases.
- Urbanisation is a continuous process in which a group of people moves from rural to urban areas, gradually congesting them.
- People move to the cities for many causes—more industries, better job opportunities, good communication, advanced medical facilities, and proper educational institutes.
- Apart from all these, people get a lot of social benefits in the cities rather than in villages.
Effects of Resettlement:
a) Conflict Over Resources:
- When a large group of people resettles at a specific place, they leave everything behind to start a fresh life in the newly shifted place.
- It is obvious that all of them have to struggle for resources.
- The resource is mainly limited in the environment, so proper resource partitioning is necessary in society for everyone’s well-being.
- Resources include food, water, sunlight, soil, natural gas, electricity, etc.
b) Lack of Jobs:
- When a large group of people resettles in another place, at least one person from every family should have a stable income to sustain life.
- In a new place, getting a job is challenging.
- So, resettled people often find it tougher to get a good job and live a well-off life.
c) Social and cultural issues:
- Sometimes the children of resettled people suffer from an identity crisis in the new environment.
- Suppose the family is resettled in a place where others are culturally different from them. In that case, the family struggles to understand and become familiar with the new cultural and social norms.
- A good idea and realising the new culture are equally crucial for social mixing.
d) Changes in the Traditions of Tribal People:
- Tribal people are culturally different from us as they have different customs, laws, and regulations.
- When tribal people resettle in other places, they lose the rich tradition of their indigenous culture and have to do jobs they are not experts at.
- Tribal people are mostly hunters, woodcutters, or work on agricultural lands.
e) Deforestation and Extinction of Wildlife:
- When a group of people resettles in a distant region, new houses are built for their accommodation.
- For this reason, forested areas are cleared, leading to deforestation.
- As a result, the number of animals residing in that area decreases rapidly.
- Many plants and animals have been tagged as rare or endangered due to this reason.
Migration: The movement of either people or animals from one area to another.
Livestock: Farm animals including sheep, pigs, goats, and cattle.
Magma: A hot liquid and semi-liquid rock located under the earth's surface that comes out during a volcanic eruption.
Habitat: A place where a living organism makes its home.
Famine: A situation where there is acute scarcity of food.
Indigenous: Native; existing naturally or having always lived in a place.
Did You Know?
- When a war breaks out in a country, people often start to resettle in other countries and are tagged as refugees.
- The common civet has become a rare animal because of habitat destruction due to urbanisation and resettlement.
- Many governmental and non-governmental organisations set up rehabilitation programmes for resettled people at various places to support them.