Using Linkers - Orchids The International School
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Descriptive Writing Skills

Concept: Using Linkers

Definition

  • Linkers are words or phrases that connect words, phrases, sentences or ideas, or paragraphs. Linkers are also known as connectors or linking words. For instance, the three basic linkers in English are: and, because, and but.
  • Linkers are usually placed at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence.
  • They can be used to join 2 or more clauses or sentences.

Example:

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In this example, we can see that the first idea, 'Cyclone was predicted', is the reason for the second idea, 'I stayed at home.' Or, 'I stayed at home' is a result of 'Cyclone was predicted.' Both these sentences can be connected through the usage of linkers: therefore or so to clarify the two ideas.

Example:

Cyclone was predicted, so I stayed at home.
Cyclone was predicted. Therefore, I stayed at home.

The order can be changed. We can place the result before the cause and use the linker ‘because’.

Example:

I stayed at home because a cyclone was predicted.

  • Linkers perform different functions in a sentence. They are used to contrast, compare, define, illustrate, and summarize thoughts and develop clear paragraphs.

Types of Linkers

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What Linking Words to Use in Descriptive Writing?

Take a look at the table below to understand the type of linkers and how they are used in descriptive writing. To write a good essay or a story you should use proper linkers in your paragraphs and sentences.

Type of Linkers Purpose Linking phrases or words Usage in Sentence
Addition Adds to support the main idea. and, even, again, also, further, moreover, furthermore,   similarly, as well as, in addition In addition to music, Shivani also participated in the painting competition.
Comparison Determines similarities between two ideas. similarly,  whereas, likewise, but, except, on the other hand, when compared to, by comparison, equally, in the same way I was late to work and similarly,my husband got delayed too.
Contrast It is used to show the difference between two ideas. but, yet, however, even though, still, nevertheless, otherwise, on the other hand, for all of that, after all, on the contrary, in contrast, notwithstanding, unlike,  alternatively, whereas, instead of, although

Though we arrived on time the gates were closed.

Time Indicates time and regularity of events. at once, meanwhile, immediately, in the meantime, at length, at the same time, when, in the end, before that, as, then, after that, last, first, next, while She slept whileI cleaned the house. He left immediatelyon seeing her.
Example Provides illustrations to support the main idea. for example, for instance, such as,   in another case, in this case, on this occasion, in this manner, in this situation, to illustrate This medicine can treat various diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, etc.
Place Indicates the position of a noun here, there, beyond, next to, nearby, opposite to, at that point, on the other side, adjacent to, in the back, in the front He lived in a house adjacent tothe temple.
Summary To draw a conclusion by summarizing the core ideas. in brief, in sum, on the whole, thus, to sum up On the whole, I am satisfied with what I have achieved so far in life.
Result Shows a reason and its end result. as a result, therefore, and consequently, because, accordingly, so, thus, hence, therefore, as A cyclone was predicted. Therefore,I stayed at home.
Sequence shows the ideas listed on a priority basis. first, second, third, then, next, now, following, after, at this point, after this, eventually, subsequently, previously, finally etc. His lunch got spoiled; consequently, he threw it all away.

Common Mistakes

  1. Linking words are not mandatory. Do not overuse them as it might confuse the reader.
  2. Linking words like in particular, furthermore, moreover, and in addition must be used when you are giving more evidence for an argument that has been mentioned in a previous sentence. Avoid using it to indicate the introduction of a related idea in the text or paragraph.
  3. Use a comma after using linking words at the beginning of a sentence.

    Example:

    However, I had different plans for that day.

  4. When linking words are used to connect two clauses, a semi-colon is placed after the first clause.

    Example:

    I would love to join you all for the party; however, I am not free today.

  5. Linkers is a broad term to describe words or phrases that link sentences or clauses. Conjunctions and connecting adverbs are two broad types of Linkers or connectives. Do not confuse the terms.

Exceptions

  1. Not all linkers are placed at the beginning or middle of a sentence. Time linkers can be used to end the sentence also. Avoid using them in the middle of a sentence.

    Examples:

    Next week, my summer vacation will start. (This is not wrong)
    My summer vacation will start next week.(However, this sentence is more appropriate)

  2. Do not use the last day when mentioning about the previous day. The word ‘yesterday’ is the apt word while refer to a previous day.

    Examples:

    I watched the newly released movie yesterday.
    I watched the newly released movie last day.

  3. Do not use yesterday night. The appropriate time linker phrase is ‘last night’.

    Examples:

    I could not sleep properly last night.
    I could not sleep properly yesterday night.

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