Polygons - Orchids The International School
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Geometry

Polygons

  • A polygon is defined as a two-dimension closed figure formed by joining three or more straight lines.
  • Few examples of polygons are:
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  • Every polygon is a closed figure but not every closed figure is a polygon.
  • Look into the figures below:
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  • Each figure is a closed figure but not every side is made up of straight lines. Therefore, these are not polygons.

Types of Polygons

There are two types of polygons:

  • Regular Polygon
  • Irregular polygon

Regular Polygon:

A polygon is said to be a regular polygon if all its side is of equal length and all the angles are equal.

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Irregular Polygon:

A polygon is said to be an irregular polygon if all its sides and angles are unequal.

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Polygonal Chart

Names of polygon

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Triangles

  • A triangle is a three-sided closed figure.
  • The three-line segments that join to make a triangle is called the sides of the triangle.
  • The point where the line segments meet each other is called the vertices of the triangle.
  • The angle formed at the vertices of the triangle is called the angles of the triangles.
  • The sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to 180°.
  • A triangle has 3 vertices, 3 sides, and 3 angles.
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  • In the figure above ABC is the triangle.
    • Sides of the triangle = AB, AC, and BC
    • Vertices of the triangle = A, B, and C.
    • Angles of the triangle = ∠A, ∠B, and ∠C.
    • ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180°
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Types of triangles

  • Equilateral triangle
  • Isosceles triangle
  • Scalene triangle

Equilateral triangle

  • In an equilateral triangle, each angle and the length of each side of the triangle are equal.
  • Each angle of an equilateral triangle is equal to 60°.
  • An equilateral triangle is also called a regular triangle.
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  • Triangle ABC,
    • Side: AB = BC = AC
    • Vertices: A, B, and C
    • Angles: ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = 60°

Isosceles triangle

  • In an isosceles triangle, two angles and the length of two sides of the triangle are equal.
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  • Triangle AOB,
    • Side: AO, AB, OB and AO = AB
    • Vertices: A, O and B
    • Angles: ∠O = ∠B and ∠A +∠O + ∠B = 180°

Scalene triangle

  • In a scalene triangle every angle and side of the triangle are unequal.
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  • Triangle ABC,
    • Side: AB ≠ AC ≠ BC
    • Vertices: A, B and C
    • Angles: ∠A ≠ ∠B ≠ C and ∠A +∠B + ∠C = 180°

Square

  • A square is a four-side closed.
  • It is made of two equal triangles.
  • It is also known as a regular quadrilateral.
  • It has 4 equal sides and the opposite sides are parallel to each other.
  • It has 4 vertices.
  • It has 4 interior angles and each interior angle of a square is equal to 90°.
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  • In the above figure, ABCD is a square.
    • Side: AB = BC = CD = AB
    • Vertices: A, B, C, and D.
    • Angles: ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90°.
    • Sum of the angle of the square is 360°.
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Rectangle

  • A rectangle is a four-side closed.
  • It is made of two equal triangles.
  • It has 4 sides and the opposite sides are parallel and equal to each other.
  • It has 4 vertices.
  • It has 4 interior angles and each interior angle of a rectangle is equal to 90°.
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  • In the above figure, ABCD is a rectangle.
    • Side: AB = CD and AD = BC
    • Vertices: A, B, C, and D.
    • Angles: ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90°.
    • Sum of the angle of the square is 360°.
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Diagonals

  • The line segments that join the opposite vertices is called the diagonal.
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Fun facts:

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Did you know:

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