Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases.
Job Alert : To view our Careers Page Click Here X
ORCHIDS The International School

Diseases and Pathogens

Concept: Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases

Communicable Diseases:

  • The diseases that spread from infected persons to healthy persons are called communicable or infectious diseases.
  • Pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi cause communicable diseases.
  • Nature-1
  • A person develops a communicable disease after becoming infected by the pathogen or an infected person.
  • Examples:Hepatitis A, Ebola, COVID-19

Non-communicable Diseases:

  • The diseases that do not get transferred from person to person are called non-communicable or non-infectious diseases.
  • The main types of non-communicable diseases include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes.
  • Nature-1

    Examples:Parkinson's disease, autoimmune diseases, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, etc.

Modes of transmission of communicable diseases:

  • Person-to-person contact: Infectious diseases are commonly transmitted through direct person-to-person contact.
    Direct contact can be through touch or the exchange of body fluids.
  • Examples:Chickenpox, measles.

    Nature-1
  • Droplet spread: Infections spread through the droplets released during coughing and sneezing.
  • Examples:Common cold, meningitis.

    Nature-1
  • Contaminated objects: Some pathogens are effective on the things touched by an infected person for some time.
    Transmission occurs when one touches those infected objects, and then touches their mouth, nose and eyes.
  • Examples:Conjunctivitis, COVID-19.

    Nature-1
  • Food and drinking water: Infectious diseases can be transmitted via contaminated food and water.
  • Examples:Typhoid, cholera, jaundice.

  • Animal-to-person contact: Some infectious diseases can be transmitted from an infected animal to a healthy person.
    It happens when an infected animal bites or scratches any exposed body part of the animal.
  • Examples:Rabies.

    Nature-1

Prevention of spread of communicable diseases:

  1. Handling and preparing food safely: The following things should be taken care of while preparing food—
    • All utensils should be washed and cleaned properly.
    • Fruits and vegetables should be washed properly before cooking or eating.
    • Raw meat or fish should be washed and cooked properly. Uncooked or partially cooked meat and fish may have deadly microbes.
    • Food should be refrigerated when not consumed.
    • Nature-1
  2. Wash hands frequently: One should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water before and after eating food, after using the toilet
    and after returning home from outside.
  3. Nature-1
  4. Clean and disinfect commonly used surfaces: Germs can thrive on surfaces. For ensuring germ-free, all commonly used surfaces should be cleaned using disinfectants.
    Bathrooms and the kitchen should be washed and scrubbed regularly.
  5. Not share personal items: Personal items should not be shared, like toothbrushes, razors, or towels. In the case of syringes,
    one should never share the needles; rather, they should only be used once and disposed of properly.
  6. Nature-1
  7. Getting vaccinated: Vaccines can prevent many infectious diseases. Vaccines for children and adults are designed to provide protection and
    resistance against many communicable diseases like chicken pox, small pox, polio, etc.
  8. Nature-1

Some common communicable diseases and their causal organisms

S. No. Name of the disease Mode of transmission Causal organism
1. Cholera Food and water Bacteria
2. Typhoid Food and water Bacteria
3. Jaundice Food and water Bacteria
4. Influenza Air Virus
5. Tuberculosis Air Bacteria
6. Malaria Mosquito Protozoa
7. Dengue Mosquito Virus
8. Tetanus Bite/wound exposed to dust or iron object Bacteria
9. Dysentery Housefly Protozoa
10. Smallpox Air Virus
11. Chicken pox Touch/air Virus
12. Mumps Air Virus
13. Measles Air Virus
14. Rabies Animal bite Virus
15. COVID-19 Air Virus

New Words

Cardiovascular diseases: The diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels.

Vaccine: A vaccine contains a dead or weakened virus that, when introduced in the body triggers the synthesis of antibodies (specialised proteins) that kill the weakened virus. These antibodies stay in our blood and keep a check on the same virus if it enters our body again in the future. The process of introducing a vaccine in a living organism is called vaccination.

Did You Know?

The process of vaccination is centuries old. Edward Jenner was the first scientist who introduced the concept of vaccination in 1796, almost 100 years before viruses were even discovered.

Nature-1
Nature-1
  • Admission Enquiry 2022-23

    Get 100% Off On Admission Fee Now