Inheritance and Heredity
Concept : Family and Relations
What is a Family ?
- A family comprises a group of people who are related to each other. It can be a nuclear or joint family. A family consists of members of different ages and gender.
Nuclear family :
- A nuclear family has only two generations living together.
- It comprises parents and their children living together. There is no elderly member in the family living together.
- Many families are becoming nuclear due to several reasons—shifting to cities for jobs or education and change in the lifestyle of present generations.
Joint family :
- A joint family has members of two to three generations living together.
- Grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins all reside together in a joint family
Benefits of living in a family :
- The members of our family help us live a meaningful life by guiding us at every step.
- Our family gives us an identity.
- The family ensures mutual support from the members of different generations. For example, grandparents are of great help at every step.
- A family gives a feeling of security and belongingness.
- A family helps us learn about our culture, festivals, rituals, customs and values, which are passed on for generations.
Members of a family :
Members of a family can be divided into generations—
- The first generation comprises grandparents.
- The second generation comprises parents.
- The third generation comprises children.
Relations in a family :
Members of a family are related to each other by birth, marriage and adoption.
|Husband||A man married to a woman.|
|Wife||A woman married to a man.|
|Sister-in-law||Wife of brother|
|Brother-in-law||Brother of husband|
|Sibling||Your brother and sister by birth.|
|Cousin||Child of your uncle or aunt.|
|Maternal grandparents||Parents of your mother|
|Paternal grandparents||Parents of your father|
Family Tree :
- The diagrammatical representation of generations in a family is called a family tree.
- The family tree may include pictures of family members, their birth dates, dates of marriages etc.
- A family tree enables us to learn about—
- Descendants of the family.
- The number of members in the family and the relation between them.
- To learn about the genealogy of the family.
Symbols used in a family tree :
- Pictures are also used instead of symbols in a family tree.
- An example of a family tree is given below—
Resemblance among family members :
- We often look like our parents or grandparents.
- Sometimes our eye colour matches our mother’s whereas the skin colour matches our father’s.
- We have habits, walking styles, and sleeping postures that resemble either of our parents.
- This resemblance is due to the transfer of hereditary material from one generation to another.
Traits in the family :
- The specific features that prevail in the family over generations are called the traits of the family.
- These traits are passed on across generations.
- You may have traits matching your parents, grandparents or paternal/maternal uncle/aunt.
- Some uncommon family traits are dimples on the cheek, rolling off the tongue, freckles, etc.
- Some commonly visible family traits are given below—
Genealogy: The study of family origins and their history.
Generation: : All the people born and living at about the same time.
Adoption: The act of taking another’s child and bringing them as one’s own.
Did You Know ?