Weather and Climate
Weather and Climate for Class 5 Science
From this concept, the students will get an idea about the different elements of weather and climate. Here the
students will be introduced to various factors that affect weather and climate.
After reading the concept, students will be able to:
- Know what is weather and climate.
- Understand what are the elements of weather.
- Explain the difference between clinical and laboratory thermometer.
- Recall the meaning of atmospheric pressure and what is a barometer used for.
- Analyse what is the weather forecast daily.
- Know the factors affecting climate and weather.
- Understand what is meant by humidity.
- Know what is the use of hygrometer.
- Recall what is the meaning of precipitation.
Each concept is explained to class 5 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.
Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept of Weather and Climate provided in PDF format.
- The weather of a place indicates its daily atmospheric conditions.
- The weather of a place changes based on several factors.
- These changes can be as frequent as minutes or as gradual as weeks.
- The factors that determine a place's weather are called elements of weather.
- Atmospheric pressure
Elements of Weather:
It is a physical quantity that determines the hotness and coldness of an object or place.
- The temperature of a place depends on the heat received from the sun.
- Nights are generally cooler than days because the sun’s heat directly reaches the earth’s surface during the day.
- Temperature also varies based on the pollution and amount of gases in an area. Areas with a high level of pollution generally have higher temperatures than those with a lower level of pollution.
- The maximum level of temperature recorded for a particular day is called the maximum temperature for the day. Similarly, the minimum temperature recorded for a day is called the minimum temperature.
- A thermometer is used to measure the temperature. It can be of two types—
- Clinical thermometer: Used for measuring the body temperature of a living organism.
- Laboratory thermometer: Used to measure the temperature of anything except the body temperature of living beings, like the temperature of an object, a mixture, or a place.
The amount of water vapour present in the air is called humidity.
- Humidity is measured by a hygrometer.
- Air is drier when the humidity is low and vice versa. Can you imagine which place would be more humid, a desert or a coastal area?
- Places near the coastal areas are humid because of the high rate of evaporation due to the sun’s heat, leading to a high amount of water vapour in the air.
- The places away from coastal areas generally experience humidity during the rainy season.
- The wind is created as a result of uneven heating of land and water. alt="Nature-1" />
- Land heats faster than water.
- The speed of wind is measured using an anemometer.
Moving air is called wind.
The pressure exerted by air per unit area is called atmospheric pressure.
- It is measured using a barometer.
The falling of water in the liquid or frozen form from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface is called precipitation.
- It can be in the form of sleet, rain, hailstorm, or snowfall.
- Precipitation, usually rainfall, is measured by a rain gauge.
The technique of predicting the weather conditions in advance is called weather forecasting. A weather report gives the following pieces of information—
- Information on temperature, wind speed, humidity, and rainfall for 24-48 hours.
- Timings of sunrise and sunset.
- Timings of moonrise and moonset.
Symbols Used in a Weather Report:
- It is the variation of weather conditions that prevail in an area for a long time.
- The climate of a place shows average atmospheric conditions over a long duration.
- The climate varies from place to place.
- Climate is similar to the weather, the only difference being the time duration.
Factors Affecting the Climate of a Place:
- Distance from the equator:
- An imaginary line that divides the earth into two halves, the northern and southern hemispheres is called the equator.
- The places near the equator are hot as the equator receives the sun’s direct rays.
- The areas which lie away from the equator are comparatively cooler.
- The temperature of a place decreases with an increase in altitude.
- It is the reason why the hill stations are cooler than the plains.
- The places near the seas and oceans have moderate climates throughout the year.
- The areas far away from the coast experience extreme winters and summers.
- Places lying in the mountains receive frequent rainfall which impacts the climate of those regions.
Moderate: Neither too hot nor too cold.
Sleet: A type of precipitation which is a mixture of rain and snow.
Hailstorm:A type of precipitation that is a mixture of rain and hailstones (ice pellets).
Did You Know?
- The coldest temperature ever recorded on earth was -82.9°C.
- In Antarctica, sometimes snowfall is so heavy that one can’t see objects at a very short distance.
- Some species of frogs start making noise before it starts raining.
- The weather and climate are responsible for migration in both animals and birds.
- The wettest place on earth is Mawsynram in Meghalaya.
- The windiest place on earth is Chicago.