Weather and Climate
Concept: Meaning of Weather and Climate
- The weather of a place indicates its daily atmospheric conditions.
- The weather of a place changes based on several factors.
- These changes can be as frequent as minutes or as gradual as weeks.
- The factors that determine a place's weather are called elements of weather. These are—
- Atmospheric pressure
Elements of weather:
It is a physical quantity that determines the hotness and coldness of an object or place.
- The temperature of a place depends on the heat received from the sun.
- Nights are generally cooler than days because the sun’s heat directly reaches the earth’s surface during the day.
- Temperature also varies based on the pollution and amount of gases in an area. Areas with a high level of pollution generally have higher temperatures than those with a lower level of pollution.
- The maximum level of temperature recorded for a particular day is called the maximum temperature for the day. Similarly, the minimum temperature recorded for a day is called the minimum temperature.
- A thermometer is used to measure the temperature. It can be of two types—
- Clinical thermometer: Used for measuring the body temperature of a living organism.
- Laboratory thermometer: Used to measure the temperature of anything except the body temperature of living beings, like the temperature of an object, a mixture, or a place.
The amount of water vapour present in the air is called humidity.
- Humidity is measured by a hygrometer.
- Air is drier when the humidity is low and vice versa. Can you imagine which place would be more humid, a desert or a coastal area?
- Places near the coastal areas are humid because of the high rate of evaporation due to the sun’s heat, leading to a high amount of water vapour in the air.
- The places away from coastal areas generally experience humidity during the rainy season.
- The wind is created as a result of uneven heating of land and water. alt="Nature-1" />
- Land heats faster than water.
- The speed of wind is measured using an anemometer.
Moving air is called wind.
The pressure exerted by air per unit area is called atmospheric pressure.
- It is measured using a barometer.
The falling of water in the liquid or frozen form from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface is called precipitation.
- It can be in the form of sleet, rain, hailstorm, or snowfall.
- Precipitation, usually rainfall, is measured by a rain gauge.
The technique of predicting the weather conditions in advance is called weather forecasting. A weather report gives the following pieces of information—
- Information on temperature, wind speed, humidity, and rainfall for 24-48 hours.
- Timings of sunrise and sunset.
- Timings of moonrise and moonset.
Symbols used in a weather report:
- It is the variation of weather conditions that prevail in an area for a long time.
- The climate of a place shows average atmospheric conditions over a long duration.
- The climate varies from place to place.
- Climate is similar to the weather, the only difference being the time duration.
Factors affecting the climate of a place:
- Distance from the equator:
- An imaginary line that divides the earth into two halves, the northern and southern hemispheres is called the equator.
- The places near the equator are hot as the equator receives the sun’s direct rays.
- The areas which lie away from the equator are comparatively cooler.
- The temperature of a place decreases with an increase in altitude.
- It is the reason why the hill stations are cooler than the plains.
- The places near the seas and oceans have moderate climates throughout the year.
- The areas far away from the coast experience extreme winters and summers.
- Places lying in the mountains receive frequent rainfall which impacts the climate of those regions.
Moderate: Neither too hot nor too cold.
Sleet: A type of precipitation which is a mixture of rain and snow.
Hailstorm:A type of precipitation that is a mixture of rain and hailstones (ice pellets).
Did You Know?
- The coldest temperature ever recorded on earth was -82.9°C.
- In Antarctica, sometimes snowfall is so heavy that one can’t see objects at a very short distance.
- Some species of frogs start making noise before it starts raining.
- The weather and climate are responsible for migration in both animals and birds.
- The wettest place on earth is Mawsynram in Meghalaya.
- The windiest place on earth is Chicago.