Methods of Reproduction in Plants | Grade 5 Science | ORCHIDS
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Reproduction in Plants

Concept: Methods of Reproduction

  • The biotic components of the ecosystem are capable of producing new individuals during their lifespan.
  • The process of production of new individuals from the existing organisms is called reproduction.
  • Reproduction is vital for the continuity of life on Earth.
  • It is also necessary for the preservation of existing species.

Parts of the plant:

  • The plant body can be broadly divided into the root system and shoot systems.
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Vegetative and reproductive parts:

  • Reproductive part: The flower is the reproductive organ of the plant. It contains the male and female parts of the plant, which are involved in forming pollen and egg, respectively.
  • Vegetative parts: All the parts of a plant, except the flower, are called vegetative parts of the plant. They include leaves, stems, roots, and nodes. They do not have any male and female parts in them and, hence, are not involved in forming eggs or pollen.

Types of reproduction:

  • Sexual reproduction: The type of reproduction that involves two parents is called sexual reproduction.
  • Asexual reproduction: The type of reproduction that involves only one parent is called asexual reproduction.

Asexual reproduction:

  • Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of eggs and pollen.
  • The different types of asexual reproduction in plants are shown in the following chart—
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Vegetative propagation:

  • Reproduction in plants that involves the vegetative parts is called vegetative propagation.
  • Different plants propagate through different vegetative parts.
  1. Vegetative propagation by roots:
  2. Modified roots called tubers participate in propagation through roots. These roots can be used to grow a separate individual plant.

    Examples: Sweet potato, Dahlia.

  3. Vegetative propagation by the stem:
  4. Vegetative propagation occurs through stems. In this method, new plants arise from the nodes, where the buds are formed, which grow into new plants. They are called by different names in different plant species.

    • The stem of potato: Tuber
    • The stem of onion: Bulb
    • The stem of ginger: Rhizome
    • Examples: Onion, garlic, tulip.

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  5. Vegetative propagation by leaves:
  6. In the leaves of some plants, buds originate from the leaf margins when they come in contact with the soil. The new plant that grows from the bud can be later separated as an individual plant.

    Examples: Byrophyllum

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  7. Layering:
  8. It is the method in which stems of the plant are covered with soil until new roots originate from that part. Once the root system is well established, the plant is separated from the mother plant.

    Examples: Jasmine, Strawberry

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  9. Cutting:
  10. In this method of reproduction, the cutting of a healthy mature plant is taken and planted in the soil for the development of the root and shoot systems.

    Examples: Rose, Dahlia, Gardenia

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  11. Grafting:
    • In this method, the root system and shoot system of two different plants are used. The plant with the shoot system is called scion, and the plant with the root system is called stock.
    • Both stock and scion are attached so that the characteristics of both parent plants could be obtained in the new plant.
    • Grafting is widely used in horticulture these days.
    • Examples: Mango, Cherry, Apple.

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Fragmentation:

  • This method of propagation is mainly seen in simple algae.
  • The parent divides into several fragments.
  • The fragments then grow and mature into individuals later.
  • Examples: Spirogyra.

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Budding:

  • This method of reproduction is also seen in primitive fungi.
  • Small buds start arising on the surface of the parent body. The buds gradually grow, get separated, and become new individuals.
  • Examples: Spirogyra.

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Spore formation:

  • Some of the plants which do not produce seeds produce spores.
  • These spores are formed in special bag-like structures called sporangia.
  • On maturation, the sporangium bursts open to release the spores into the environment.
  • These spores germinate into new plants when suitable environmental conditions are available.
  • Examples: Ferns, Mosses, and some fungi like Rhizopus.

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New Words

Horticulture: The branch of agriculture that deals with the cultivation of fruits,vegetables,and ornamental plants.

Sporangium: Singular—sporangia; the spore-producing structures found in primitive plants.

Primitive:Something which does not have a complex level of organization.

Pollen: Male sex cell in plants.

Ovule:Female sex cell in plants.


Did You Know?

  • Plants that creep along the ground are called runners and generally propagate through layering.
  • A small cell of the plant body can be used to produce several plants by the technique of tissue culture.
  • Modified stems like bulbs, tubers, and rhizomes are capable of storing food.
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