We know that rocks can be broadly classified into—igneous rocks,
sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Each of these categories
includes different types of rocks. Let us have a detailed look at them.
Cooling of magma under the earth’s surface leads to the formation of
It is hard rock with large grains.
The content of feldspar gives the rock its characteristic colour.
They vary from whitish-grey to pinkish-red depending on the mixture of
minerals present in them.
Three main types of granite are—Quartz, Feldspar and Mica.
Making buildings and statues.
Used for flooring and making foundations of buildings.
It is formed by the quick cooling of lava on the earth’s surface.
Pumice has a lot of air pockets in it. These have developed because of
the gases trapped inside at the time of cooling.
It appears like a sponge.
It is light-weighted, and its colour varies from grey to cream.
Used in powdered form for polishing teeth.
Used as a body scrubber.
Used for polishing furniture and floors.
It is also formed out of lava and looks like black glass.
It has sharp edges and is hence used for making cutting tools.
It is coarse-grained and has a glassy and compact appearance.
It is formed when the lava comes in contact with air, cooling down
Used for building pipes and wind turbine blades.
It is used in the textile industries.
This rock is crushed to make roads and pavements.
Sand particles harden together to form sandstone.
It is the most common sedimentary rock.
It mainly consists of quartz.
Its colour varies from yellow, brown to pink.
It is used for constructing buildings. The famous Red Fort at Delhi is
made of sandstone.
Clay and mud particles pile up together in layers to form shale.
Its texture is smooth.
It is used for making tiles and bricks.
Pebbles, when cement together with minerals, lead to the formation of
They have a rough texture.
Their colour varies from grey to orange.
For building monuments, artefacts and sculptures.
Used in cement manufacturing industries.
In crushed form can be used for construction purposes.
It majorly constitutes calcite, a mineral found in animal shells.
It varies from grey to white.
It is used as a building material.
It is the major component of white cement.
It is used to synthesise lime, a chemical used to neutralise the
acidity of the soil.
It is formed by the transformation of limestone, which is a
It is found in various colours and white is the most common.
It is used for making statues and buildings.
The world-famous Tajmahal at Agra is made of marble.
It is formed by the metamorphosis of shale.
It is shiny and found in dark shades of grey and black.
It is used for making roofs.
Blackboards are made of slates.
It is formed by the metamorphosis of granite.
It has visible dark and light bands.
It contains the shiny mineral mica that gives it its unique glittering
It is used for making floor tiles.
Cemetery monuments are crafted out of Gneiss.
It is formed by the metamorphosis of sandstone.
It is used for making bricks and statues.
Cemetery: A place where dead people are buried
Acidity: The amount of acid in a substance. Acid is a
substance that tastes sour.
Neutralise: To balance the effect of acidity.
Did You Know?
Rocks are found in some things that we use at home like soaps,
toothpaste and batteries.
The use of rocks started millions of years ago when the early men used
them to make weapons and produce fire.
Diamond is the hardest substance known on earth and mainly comprises
Ruby and Sapphire used as precious gems are varieties of a mineral named
The metamorphosis of Limestone forms a type of metamorphic rock called