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NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 - Law and Social Justice

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 10, focusing on "Law and Social Justice," offer a valuable resource for students seeking a comprehensive understanding of essential topics. Primarily, these solutions shed light on the significance of laws and social justice, foundational elements crucial for the functioning of any nation. This chapter serves as a cornerstone for students venturing into the study of laws, imparting knowledge about the constitution and legislative processes.

Access Answers to NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 - Law and Social Justice

Law and Social Justice

Question 1 :

Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.


Answer :

In any state, the government serves a variety of functions: 

(i) The government provides public services such as water supply, healthcare, education, and sanitation, and ensures that private businesses do not take over these functions.

(ii) One of the government's main responsibilities is to regulate the actions of private enterprises by enacting, implementing, and upholding laws in order to prohibit unfair practises and ensure social fairness. This entails that the government is responsible for enacting and enforcing "suitable legislation." The government enacts rules to safeguard workers in manufacturing plants, such as minimum wage laws, labour laws, and workplace safety laws. It also enacts market-related legislation to safeguard consumers from overpricing and inferior products. A law prohibiting child labour has also been enacted by the government.

(iii) The government penalises businesses that fail to adhere to policies designed to safeguard the environment from pollution.

Question 2 :

What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?

Answer :

The following are the benefits to foreign corporations of setting up production in India:

(i) Low-cost labour: Wages paid to workers in the United States are significantly greater than those paid to workers in India. Foreign enterprises make the Indian workers work more and pay less money. Additional costs, such as housing for workers, are also reduced. As a result, businesses can save money while increasing earnings. 

(ii) Cost-cutting: Cost-cutting can also be accomplished through more hazardous methods. In India, cost-cutting methods include working conditions that include less safety precautions. As a result, global corporations seek to establish manufacturing operations in India.

Question 3 :

Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.


Answer :

No, the Bhopal gas tragedy victims are still seeking  justice.

Despite the wide-open, so many evidence of the disaster, the firm that controlled the pesticide factory, Union Carbide (UC), first refused to acknowledge responsibility. After giving the bare minimum in compensation to the survivors of this catastrophe, UC got away with it. Survivors are still battling for justice, safe drinking water, health-care facilities, and jobs for people poisoned by UC after 24 years. Their cases are still pending in a number of courts around the country. 

Question 4 :

What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?


Answer :

Law enforcement is the activity of some members of the government who work together to enforce the law by identifying, discouraging, rehabilitating, or punishing those who break the society's laws and standards. It is the government's job to ensure that laws are not broken by anyone. 

Enforcement is critical to maintaining India's democratic status; if foreign corporations set up low-wage, unsafe working conditions, this infringes on the Fundamental Right to Life of a worker. With more industries being established in India by both domestic and foreign enterprises, there is a greater need for tougher legislation to protect employees' rights, producers' rights, and customers' rights. As a result, today's enforcement is critical.


Question 5 :

How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.


Answer :

Markets can be made to work fairly if laws are in place. For example:-

a."No child under the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment," according to Article 24 of the Indian constitution.

b. Article 23(1): Human trafficking, begging, and other types of forced labour are forbidden, and any violation of this article is a criminal offence penalised according to the law.

Question 6 :

What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?


Answer :

In our location, there are numerous causes of pollution.

Air Pollution - Vehicles, industrial gases ejected from chimneys, and smoke from red brick Bhattas are all sources of pollution.

Water Pollution - Chemical discharges and other liquid effluents from tanneries, mills, and other industries. Dry latrines and inefficient discharge of household waste and sewage into waterways are the other reasons.

Soil Pollution - Lack of suitable arrangements for disposing of domestic garbage, industrial effluents, and ashes, among other things.

In recent years, there has been a steady rise in public awareness of the importance of maintaining a clean environment.

(i) Our country's courts have issued a number of strong orders on environmental issues, and actions are being done to limit pollution as a result. Countries and local governments must take appropriate steps to prevent resource exploitation or overuse. In some nations, for example, there are restrictions on the use of certain fuels such as coal, gasoline, and so on. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power are promoted.

(ii) Conservation of land, air, and water resources can help to prevent environmental degradation. We must regulate pollution at the source in order to achieve this. Industries can adopt efficient, environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques and promote the recycling of their discarded products. Pollution can be controlled at the source this way.

(iii) The government can ensure that rules and regulations relating to environmental issues, such as the use of plastic bags, the disposal of all types of trash, and the reduction of harmful emissions from various industries, are properly enforced. It also has the power to penalise or fine people who break the law.


Question 7 :

How was the environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.


Answer :

Previously, the environment was treated as a "free" entity, with any enterprise or individual having complete freedom to damage the air and water. The environment was being poisoned, whether it was our rivers, air, or groundwater, because there were no laws in place. The topic of environmental contamination has risen to prominence in recent years, particularly in the aftermath of the Bhopal gas tragedy. People's perceptions have fully changed now, and they see that the environment will be shared in the future. Everyone is becoming more aware that a clean environment is a public resource that cannot be sacrificed for the sake of industrial progress. The courts have also upheld the right to a healthy environment as an integral part of the Fundamental Right to Life.

Those who do not respect environmental regulations can now be punished or fined by the government. Renewable energy users are also given incentives by the government. It is encouraged to use recycled products. As a result of the increased number of environmental campaigns and initiatives to plant more trees, people are increasingly engaged in environmental protection.


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