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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 11 - The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Our Past III serve as an invaluable aid for students aiming to excel in their final examinations. These comprehensive solutions meticulously address all the questions provided at the end of each textbook chapter. Whether preparing for a class test or the ultimate examination, these NCERT solutions systematically present the entire chapter, instilling confidence in students about the subject matter. Complex concepts are elucidated in straightforward language, ensuring a thorough understanding. Hence, NCERT Solutions Class 8 Chapter 11 Social Science from Orchid International School effectively fulfill the academic requirements of students.

The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

Question 1 :

Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?

Answer :

In the 1870s and 1880s, there was widespread discontent with British rule. The following are some of the causes behind this dissatisfaction:

  1. The Arms Act, which was passed in 1878 and prohibited Indians from owning arms.

  2. The Vernacular Press Act, passed in 1878, was intended to silence critics of the government. The government might seize the assets of newspapers if they published anything that was deemed "objectionable" under this Act.

  3. The ilbert bill controversy- The government attempted to introduce the Ilbert Bill in 1883. This bill allowed for the trial of British or European citizens by Indians, and it aimed for equality in the country between British and Indian judges. The white opposition, on the other hand, forced the government to withdraw the bill. This infuriated the Indians even more.

 


Question 2 :

Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

 

Answer :

The Indian National Congress aimed to represent all Indians, regardless of social class, race, caste, creed, language, or gender. It declared that India, its resources, and systems belonged to all the Indian communities, not just one class or community.

 


Question 3 :

What economic impact did the First World War have on India?

Answer :

 Following are the economic impact of the First World War on India:

  1. The Government of India's military expenditure increased dramatically as a result of the First World War. As a result, the government raised taxes on individual income and business profits. Increased military spending and demand for war supplies resulted in significant rising prices, causing great hardship for the common people.

  2. Business organizations, on the other side, gained huge profits from the war. The war increased demand for industrial commodities such as jute bags, cotton, and rails while decreasing imports from other countries. As a result, during the war, the Indian industry grew.

 


Question 4 :

What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?

Answer :

In 1940, the Muslim League passed a resolution calling for "Independent States" for Muslims in the north-western and eastern parts of the country.

 


Question 5 :

Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?

 

Answer :

The Congress's objectives and methods were "moderate" for the first twenty years of its existence. The Moderates were the Congress's leaders at the time. They recommended a nonviolent battle against British control, which the radicals dubbed "petition politics." They aimed to raise public awareness about British rule's injustices. They published newspapers, authored articles, and demonstrated how British rule was causing the country's economic devastation. In their lectures, they criticized British rule and assigned representatives to various sections of the country to mobilize public opinion. They believed that because the British respected the ideas of liberty and justice, they would support the Indians' demands.

 


Question 6 :

 How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?

 

Answer :

The Radicals were opposed to the Moderates' "politics of prayers" within the Congress. They looked into more radical objectives and approaches. They emphasized the value of self-sufficiency and productive work. They suggested that people should rely on their own strength rather than the government's "good" intentions (as was the stated policy of the Moderates). They believed that people must strive for swaraj.

 


Question 7 :

Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?

 

Answer :

 The Non-Cooperation Movement gained traction in 1921 and 1922.

  1. Thousands of students deserted government-run schools and colleges.

  2. Many lawyers stopped practising.

  3. British titles were relinquished.

  4. People ignited public bonfires of foreign cloth.

  5. Legislatures were boycotted.

The majority of the calls for non-cooperation stemmed from local grievances.

  1. Patidar peasants in Kheda, Gujarat, staged nonviolent protests against the British's excessive land revenue demands.

  2. Liquor stores were picketed in coastal Andhra Pradesh and central Tamil Nadu. 

  3. Tribal and poor peasants in Andhra Pradesh's Guntur area revolted against the colonial state for limiting their access to forest resources. They organized several "forest satyagrahas," releasing their animals into forests without paying grazing taxes.

  4. The Sikh Akali agitation in Punjab aimed to remove corrupt mahants from their gurudwaras, which were backed by the British.

  5. Tea garden labourers in Assam wanted a significant wage hike. They deserted the British-owned plantations when their demands were not met.

People looked forward to Gandhiji as a messiah, someone who could assist them escape poverty and misery. Agricultural labourers believed he would supply them with land, while peasants believed he would aid them in their fight against zamindars.

 


Question 8 :

Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?

Answer :

The British enacted legislation that gave the government control over the production and sale of salt. The selling of salt was likewise subject to a tax. The imposition of a tax on salt, which was a basic commodity for food, was deemed unjust by Mahatma Gandhi and other national leaders. The leaders made the decision to oppose the tax. Gandhiji said in 1930 that he would lead a march to overturn the salt ban. The Salt March was motivated by a longing for freedom shared by all people, rich and poor alike. Gandhiji and his supporters marched almost 240 kilometres from Sabarmati to Dandi, where they defied official regulations by taking natural salt from the seashore and boiling it to make salt. A vast number of peasants, Tribals, and women took part. The Salt Satyagraha was documented in pamphlets.

 


Question 9 :

Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 periods that led to the creation of Pakistan.

 

Answer :

The events that led to the formation of Pakistan are as follows:

  1. A two-nation theory - In the late 1930s, the Muslim League began to regard Muslims as a distinct "nation" from Hindus.

  2. Provincial elections of 1937 - The League was convinced that Muslims were a minority and would always have to play second fiddle in whatever democratic framework after the provincial elections of 1937. It was believed that Muslims would be left out entirely.

  3. Muslim League and the Congress were at odds- The Congress rejected the Muslim League's proposal for a unified Congress-League government in the United Provinces in 1937, causing a schism between the two parties. The League was agitated.

  4. Muslim League had a large mass support base - The Congress failed to mobilize the Muslim people in the 1930s. The Muslim League was able to broaden its social base as a result of this. It attempted to broaden its appeal in the early 1940s, when the majority of Congress leaders were imprisoned.

  5. Failure of talks - After the Second World War ended in 1945, the British began negotiations for India's independence with the Congress, the League, and themselves. The talks, however, fell through because the League considered itself as the sole voice of India's Muslims, a position that the Congress could not accept because a huge proportion of Muslims still supported it.

  6. 1946 provincial elections - Provincial elections were held once more in 1946. The Congress did well in “General” constituencies, but the League's victory in Muslim-only seats was stunning. As a result, more people demanded for a Muslim-only country.

  7. Talks failed once more- In March 1946, the British government established a three-member mission to Delhi to investigate the demand and provide a suitable political framework for a free India. According to this mission, India should stay intact and form a loose confederation with some autonomy for Muslim-majority areas. But it was unable to persuade the Congress and the Muslim community. Partition was now almost unavoidable.

  8. Rioting and mass agitation- Following the collapse of the Cabinet Mission, the Muslim League planned to use popular agitation to achieve its Pakistan goal. It declared August 16, 1946, to be "Direct Action Day." Riots erupted in Calcutta on this day, lasting several days and killing tens of thousands of people. By March 1947, the violence had spread throughout Northern India.

  9. Partition- At long last, the demand for India's partition was met, and "Pakistan" was born.

 


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