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Mathematics employs a range of symbols for operations, relations, and quantities, forming a concise and universal language. Key symbols include "+," "−" for addition and subtraction, "∫" for integration, and "Σ" for summation, playing a crucial role in accurately expressing mathematical ideas.

Fundamental Math symbols include "+", "-", "*", and "/". The addition symbol "+" combines two numbers, while "-" represents finding the difference between two numbers to symbolize subtraction. The multiplication symbol "" signifies repeated addition, and "/" denotes division, the process of sharing or splitting quantities. These basic symbols form the building blocks for more intricate mathematical expressions.

Symbol |
Name of the Symbol |
Meaning / Definition |

+ |
Plus |
Indicates addition or a positive quantity. |

- |
Minus |
Denotes subtraction or a negative quantity. |

× or * |
Multiplication |
Represents multiplication of numbers or variables. |

÷ or / |
Division |
Denotes division or the quotient of two numbers. |

= |
Equals |
States equality between two expressions or values. |

< |
Less Than |
Shows that one value is smaller than another. |

> |
Greater Than |
Shows that one value is larger than another. |

≤ |
Less Than or Equal to |
Denotes that a value is less than or equal to another. |

≥ |
Greater Than or Equal to |
Denotes that a value is greater than or equal to another. |

π |
Pi |
Represents the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. |

√ |
Square Root |
Represents the root of a number. |

∞ |
Infinity |
Represents a quantity larger than any finite number. |

% |
Percent |
Denotes a fraction of 100. |

! |
Factorial |
Represents the product of an integer and all the integers below it down to 1. |

∑ |
Summation |
Denotes the sum of a sequence of numbers. |

∫ |
Integral |
Represents the integral of a function. |

° |
Degree |
Indicates measurement in degrees. |

( ) |
Parentheses |
Used to denote order of operations or grouping. |

^ |
Exponentiation |
Denotes raising a number to a power. |

∛ |
Cube Root |
Represents the cube root of a number. |

∜ |
Fourth Root |
Represents the fourth root of a number. |

± |
Plus or Minus |
Represents two possible values: positive and negative. |

∠ |
Angle |
Denotes an angle between two lines or sides of a polygon. |

∆ |
Delta |
Represents a change or difference in a quantity. |

≈ |
Approximately Equal to |
Indicates that two values are approximately equal. |

≡ |
Congruent to |
Denotes that two figures or values are congruent or equal. |

⊥ |
Perpendicular to |
Indicates that two lines are perpendicular. |

∥ |
Parallel to |
Denotes that two lines are parallel. |

∩ |
Intersection |
Represents the intersection of sets or regions. |

∪ |
Union |
Represents the union of sets or regions. |

⊆ |
Subset |
Denotes that one set is a subset of another. |

⊇ |
Superset |
Denotes that one set is a superset of another. |

∴ |
Therefore |
Indicates a conclusion or inference. |

∵ |
Because |
Indicates a reason or cause. |

~ |
Similar to |
Denotes similarity between two figures. |

∀ |
For All |
Represents "for all" in mathematical logic. |

∃ |
Exists |
Represents "there exists" in mathematical logic. |

∞ |
Infinity |
Represents an infinitely large quantity. |

∇ |
Nabla / Gradient |
Represents the gradient or vector differential operator. |

⊗ |
Tensor Product |
Represents the tensor product of vector spaces. |

⊕ |
Direct Sum |
Denotes the direct sum of vector spaces. |

∈ |
Element of |
Denotes that an element belongs to a set. |

∉ |
Not an Element of |
Denotes that an element does not belong to a set. |

ℵ |
Aleph |
Represents the cardinality of infinite sets. |

a^b |
Exponentiation |
Denotes raising 'a' to the power of 'b'. |

a√b |
nth Root |
Represents the nth root of 'b'. |

mod |
Modulo |
Represents the remainder after division. |

ab |
Absolute Value |
Denotes the magnitude of a real number without its sign. |

± |
Plus/Minus |
Indicates two possible values: positive and negative. |

% |
Percent |
Denotes a fraction of 100. |

‰ |
Per Mille |
Denotes a fraction of 1000. |

ppm |
Parts Per Million |
Denotes one part in a million. |

ppb |
Parts Per Billion |
Denotes one part in a billion. |

ppt |
Parts Per Trillion |
Denotes one part in a trillion. |

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