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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 – Ruling the Countryside

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3, titled "Ruling the Countryside," hold significant importance within the academic curriculum. It is imperative for students to meticulously study the context and facts presented in this chapter. Facilitating a seamless learning experience, free PDF downloads of NCERT solutions for all exercises are available. By utilizing these resources, students can thoroughly prepare for this chapter, paying close attention to the expertly formulated answers.

NCERT Solutions for SST-History Ruling the Countryside

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Access Answers to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 – Ruling the Countryside

Ruling the Countryside

Question 1 :

Match the Following:

Ryot

Village

Mahal

Peasant

Nij

Cultivation on Ryot’s Lands

Ryoti

Cultivation on Planter’s Own Land

 

Answer :

Ryot

Peasant

Mahal

Village

Nij

Cultivation on planter's own land

Ryoti

Cultivation on ryot’s lands

 


Question 2 :

Fill in the Blanks:

  1. Growers of Woad in Europe Saw _________ as a Crop Which Would Provide Competition to Their Earnings.

  2. The Demand for Indigo Increased in Late-Eighteenth-Century Britain Because of  __________.

  3. The International Demand for Indigo Was Affected by the Discovery of ___________.

  4. The Champaran Movement Was Against ___________.

 

 

Answer :

  1. Indigo- In Europe, woad growers saw indigo as a crop that would threaten their livelihood.
  1. Cotton production increased as a result of industrialisation, resulting in a huge need for fabric dyes.

  1. Synthetic dyes- The discovery of synthetic dyes had an impact on the global market for indigo.

  1. Indigo planters- The visit of Mahatma Gandhi in 1917 sparked the Champaran agitation against indigo planters.

 


Question 3 :

Describe the Main Features of the Permanent Settlement.

 

Answer :

To ensure a steady revenue stream, most East India Company officials believed that land investment should be encouraged and agriculture should be enhanced. In 1793, permanent settlement was established as a result of this.

  1. Rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars under the conditions of the settlement.

  2. They were given the task of collecting rent from the peasants and remitting profits to the company.

  3. The amount that had to be paid was fixed permanently.

  4. This was thought to assure a steady stream of revenue to the company's officers. Simultaneously, the zamindars were told to put money into renovating the land.

  5. If the zamindars failed to pay the revenue, which was typically the case due to the high fixed revenue, they lost their zamindari claim to the land.

 


Question 4 :

How Was the Mahalwari System Different from the Permanent Settlement?

 

Answer :

Mahalwari Settlement

Permanent Settlement

The mahalwari system, designed by Holt Mackenzie, went into action in the Bengal Presidency's North Western provinces in 1822.

Lord Cornwallis introduced the Permanent Settlement in 1793.

It was created as a replacement for the Permanent Settlement.

It was designed to ensure the East India Company's revenue was constant.

The revenue was collected by the local headmen.

The revenue was collected by the rajas and taluqdars.

The revenue figure was not set in stone and would be adjusted on a regular basis. To compute the tax that each village or mahal had to pay, the expected revenue of each plot within a village was totalled up.

The revenue amount was fixed and was never to be increased in the future.

 


Question 5 :

Give Two Problems Which Arose With the New Munro System of Fixing Revenue.

 

Answer :

Two issues developed as a result of the new Munro revenue-fixing system are:

  1. Revenue officials set an unrealistically high revenue requirement, motivated by a desire to boost land revenues.

  2. As the crop failed in the countryside, peasants were unable to pay the revenue, and settlements in many areas went desolate.

 


Question 6 :

Why Were Ryots Reluctant to Grow Indigo?

 

Answer :

The ryots were hesitant to cultivate indigo for several reasons:

  1. Indigo was purchased for a very low price by the planters.

  2. The ryots couldn't even cover their costs, so making a profit was a pipe dream. This meant that the ryot was perpetually in debt.

  3. The landowners urged that the peasants farm indigo on the most fertile areas of their land, but following an indigo harvest, the peasants chose to grow rice on the richest soils. The ryots were hesitant to cultivate indigo because the land could not be used for cultivating rice.

 


Question 7 :

What Were the Circumstances Which Led to the Eventual Collapse of Indigo  Production in Bengal?

 

Answer :

The ryots began to resist indigo cultivation. In their conflict, the village  headmen and some zamindars backed them up. The protests were so large that the government had no choice but to interfere. The Indigo Commission was formed to look into the issues. The planters' flaws were accepted by the Commission, and the ryots were free to grow anything they wanted. Bengal's indigo manufacturing eventually came to a halt as a result.

 


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