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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Our Pasts-3 Chapter 6 – Colonialism and The City

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 - "Colonialism and the City" are readily available for students seeking comprehensive assistance in their preparation. Orchid International School presents a user-friendly, free PDF download of these solutions, offering a convenient resource to address various academic challenges.

NCERT Solutions for SST-History Colonialism and The City

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Access Answers to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Our Pasts-3 Chapter 6 – Colonialism and The City

Colonialism and The City

Question 1 :

State whether true or false: 

(a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation. 

(b) Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century. 

(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.

(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.

(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.

 

Answer :

(a) True 

(b) False

(c) False

(d) True

(e) False

 


Question 2 :

Fill in the blanks: 

(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the______.

(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were and______                      

(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as_______                             . 

(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the______ was devised. 

Answer :

(a) Jama Masjid. 

(b) Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker. 

(c) unhygienic and unhealthy, the source of disease. 

(d) Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme.

 


Question 3 :

Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.

 

Answer :

The following are the differences in the city designs of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.

New Delhi 

Shahjahanabad

Unwalled city south of Shahjahanabad or Old Delhi, built on Raisina Hill.

With the river Yamuna running nearby, it was built as a walled city with 14 gates, enclosing a fort palace complex.

The streets are wide and straight.

Mazes of twisting, small alleys, by lanes, and quiet cul-de-sacs.

Sprawling mansions in the midst of huge compounds.

Several dozen bazaars and crowded and packed mohallas.

 


Question 4 :

 Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras? 

 

Answer :

The British resided in "white" zones that had been well-planned.

 


Question 5 :

What is meant by de-urbanisation?

 

Answer :

The British created new trading centres on the eastern and western coasts, such as Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay for the sake of ease. These were Presidency cities that served as regional centres of British power. The importance of these cities waned throughout time. Simultaneously, many cities producing specialised items experienced a decline due to a drop in demand for what they produced.

When the flow of trade shifted to new centres, old trading centres and ports couldn't keep up. When local rulers were conquered by the British, former centres of regional control disintegrated, and new administrative centres developed. De-urbanisation is the term for this process.

During the nineteenth century, cities like Machilipatnam, Surat, and Seringapatam were de-urbanized. Only about a quarter of Indians lived in cities during the early twentieth century. 

 


Question 6 :

Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?

 

Answer :

Despite the fact that Calcutta was the British capital, they recognised the symbolic and cultural significance of Delhi. 

  • It was the city that had been governed by the Mughal for several years.

  • It was the same city that had become a rebel stronghold during the 1857 insurrection, which had threatened to topple British control in India for a while. As a result, it was crucial to commemorate British power in this location with pomp and circumstance.

  • In 1877, a great Durbar was held in Delhi to recognise Queen Victoria as the Empress of India.

  • In 1911, a Durbar was held in Delhi to commemorate King George V's coronation. The decision to relocate India's capital from Calcutta to Delhi was announced at this Durbar. These exhibitions demonstrated the British's absolute authority and dominance over the Indian people.

 


Question 7 :

How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?

Answer :

The Old City of Delhi was built as a walled city with 14 gates, adjacent to a fort-palace complex, and near the river Jamuna. Mosques, Havelis, congested mohallas, tiny and twisting roads, and lanes and water channels characterised the city.

  • In 1803 the British took possession of Delhi. Prior to the 1857 rebellion, the British adapted to the Mughal culture of the Old City by residing in the Walled City, enjoying Urdu/Persian culture and poetry, and attending local festivals. The establishment of Delhi College in 1792 resulted in a significant intellectual blooming in both sciences and humanities.

  • Following the insurrection, however, the British set out on a quest to cleanse the city of its Mughal legacy. They demolished several palaces, shut down gardens, and replaced them with barracks for the military. Gardens, pavilions, and mosques were removed from the area surrounding the Red Fort for security reasons.

  • Mosques, in particular, were either demolished or repurposed. For five years, no worship was permitted in the Jama Masjid.

  • For five years, no worship was permitted in the Jama Masjid. 

  • The Western Walls of Shahjahanabad were breached in the 1870s to allow for the construction of the railway and the expansion of the city beyond the walls.

  • In the city's north, the huge Civil Lines sector arose. This is where the British first set up residence. In 1877, the Delhi College was converted into a school and closed.

South of the Old City, the British built a new city known as New Delhi. New Delhi, built in stark contrast to the Old City, became the seat of authority, while the Old City was placed in the background.

 


Question 8 :

How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?

 

Answer :

Following are the points regarding partition affect life in Delhi:

  • The city of Delhi's livelihood, art, and culture were all affected by India's division.

  • Violent rioting broke out just days following India's independence and partition. Thousands of people were slaughtered, and their homes were robbed and torched in Delhi. Over two-thirds of Delhi's Muslims went to Pakistan, leaving nearly 44,000 homes unoccupied. Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan took over their homes. The majority of the refugees were farmers, lawyers, teachers, traders, and shopkeepers.

  • The 1947 partition of India resulted in a significant population transfer on both sides of the new border. As a result, Delhi's population grew significantly (almost 500,000 people were added to the city's population). People were forced to live in camps, schools, military barracks, and gardens as Delhi became a refugee city. Their life changed after Partition as they took on new vocations as hawkers, sellers, carpenters, and others.

  • During this period, new colonies such as Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar sprung up. To meet the needs of the migrants, shops and stalls were established. Schools and colleges were also included. The enormous influx of Punjabis into Delhi altered the city's social and cultural landscape. New tastes and sensitivities in food, clothes, and the arts eclipsed an urban culture mostly based on Urdu.

 


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